Advertisement

Schizotypy and smooth pursuit eye movements as potential endophenotypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder

  • Katharina BeyEmail author
  • Inga Meyhöfer
  • Leonhard Lennertz
  • Rosa Grützmann
  • Stephan Heinzel
  • Christian Kaufmann
  • Julia Klawohn
  • Anja Riesel
  • Ulrich Ettinger
  • Norbert Kathmann
  • Michael Wagner
Original Paper

Abstract

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show dysfunctions of the fronto-striatal circuitry, which imply corresponding oculomotor deficits including smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). However, evidence for a deficit in SPEM is inconclusive, with some studies reporting reduced velocity gain while others did not find any SPEM dysfunctions in OCD patients. Interestingly, psychosis-like traits have repeatedly been linked to both OCD and impaired SPEM. Here, we examined a large sample of n = 168 patients with OCD, n = 93 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 171 healthy control subjects to investigate whether elevated levels of schizotypy and SPEM deficits represent potential endophenotypes of OCD. We applied a SPEM task with high demands on predictive pursuit that is more sensitive to assess executive dysfunctions than a standard task with continuous visual feedback, as episodes of target blanking put increased demands on basal ganglia and prefrontal involvement. Additionally, we examined the relation between schizotypy and SPEM performance in OCD patients and their relatives. Results indicate that OCD patients and unaffected relatives do not show deficient performance in either standard or predictive SPEM. Yet, both patients and relatives exhibited elevated levels of schizotypy, and schizotypy was significantly correlated with velocity gain during standard trials in unmedicated and depression-free OCD patients. These findings highlight the role of schizotypy as a candidate endophenotype of OCD and add to the growing evidence for predisposing personality traits in OCD. Furthermore, intact gain may represent a key characteristic that distinguishes the OCD and schizophrenia patient populations.

Keywords

Obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD Smooth pursuit eye movements SPEM Schizotypy Endophenotype 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; KA815/6-1 and WA731/10-1). We sincerely thank all research assistants and subjects who participated in the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Anttila V, Bulik-Sullivan B, Finucane HK, Bras J, Duncan L, Escott-Price V et al (2016) Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. BioRxiv.  https://doi.org/10.1101/048991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnes GR (2008) Cognitive processes involved in smooth pursuit eye movements. Brain Cogn 68(3):309–326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2008.08.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker W, Fuchs AF (1985) Prediction in the oculomotor system: smooth pursuit during transient disappearance of a visual target. Exp Brain Res 57(3):562–575.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00237843 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bey K, Kloft L, Lennertz L, Grützmann R, Heinzel S, Kaufmann C, Wagner M (2017) Volitional saccade performance in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected first-degree relatives. Psychophysiology 54(9):1284–1294.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12884 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bey K, Lennertz L, Riesel A, Klawohn J, Kaufmann C, Heinzel S, Wagner M (2017) Harm avoidance and childhood adversities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Acta Psychiatr Scand 135(4):328–338.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12707 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Rosario MC, Pittenger C, Leckman JF (2008) Meta-analysis of the symptom structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 165(12):1532–1542.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020320 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brakoulias V, Starcevic V, Berle D, Milicevic D, Hannan A, Viswasam K, Mann K (2014) The clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder associated with high levels of schizotypy. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 48(9):852–860.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867414531831 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cavedini P, Zorzi C, Piccinni M, Cavallini MC, Bellodi L (2010) Executive dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive patients and unaffected relatives: searching for a new intermediate phenotype. Biol Psychiat 67(12):1178–1184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.02.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen J (1973) Eta-squared and partial eta-squared in fixed factor anova designs. Educ Psychol Measur 33(1):107–112.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447303300111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Costas J, Carrera N, Alonso P, Gurriarán X, Segalàs C, Real E, Morell M (2016) Exon-focused genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder and shared polygenic risk with schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry 6(3):e768.  https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.34 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damilou A, Apostolakis S, Thrapsanioti E, Theleritis C, Smyrnis N (2016) Shared and distinct oculomotor function deficits in schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychophysiology 53(6):796–805.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12630 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ding J, Powell D, Jiang Y (2009) Dissociable frontal controls during visible and memory-guided eye-tracking of moving targets. Hum Brain Mapp 30(11):3541–3552.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20777 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ettelt S, Grabe HJ, Ruhrmann S, Buhtz F, Hochrein A, Kraft S, John U (2008) Harm avoidance in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their families. J Affect Disord 107(1):265–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.08.017 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ericson M, Tuvblad C, Raine A, Young-Wolff K, Baker LA (2011) Heritability and longitudinal stability of schizotypal traits during adolescence. Behav Genet 41(4):499–511.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-010-9401-x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farber RH, Clementz BA, Swerdlow NR (1997) Characteristics of open- and closed loop smooth pursuit responses among obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and nonpsychiatric individuals. Psychophysiology 34:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fernandez-Egea E, Worbe Y, Bernardo M, Robbins TW (2018) Distinct risk factors for obsessive and compulsive symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Psychol Med.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171800017X PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JB (1997) User’s guide for the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I Disorders SCID-I: clinician version. American Psychiatric Association Publishing, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JB, Davies M, Borus J, Rounsaville B (1995) The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders (SCID-II). Part II: multi-site test-retest reliability study. J Pers Disord 9(2):92–104.  https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1995.9.2.92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foa EB, Huppert JD, Leiberg S, Langner R, Kichic R, Hajcak G, Salkovskis PM (2002) The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess 14(4):485–496.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.14.4.485 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gambini O, Abbruzzese M, Scarone S (1993) Smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements and Wisconsin card sorting test performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 48(3):191–200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8272442
  22. 22.
    Glass GV (1966) Testing homogeneity of variances. Am Educ Res J 3(3):187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gönner S, Leonhart R, Ecker W (2008) The obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R): validation of the German version in a sample of patients with OCD, anxiety disorders, and depressive disorders. J Anxiety Disord 22(4):734–749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Delgado P, Heninger GR, Charney DS (1989) The Yale Brown obsessive compulsive scale: II. Validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46(11):1012–1016.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810110054008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gottesman II, Gould TD (2003) The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry 160(4):636–645.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.636 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grabe HJ, Ruhrmann S, Ettelt S, Buhtz F, Hochrein A, Schulze-Rauschenbach S, Freyberger HJ (2006) Familiality of obsessive-compulsive disorder in nonclinical and clinical subjects. Am J Psychiatry 163(11):1986–1992.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.11.1986 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grover S, Dua D, Chakrabarti S, Avasthi A (2017) Obsessive compulsive symptoms/disorder in patients with schizophrenia: prevalence, relationship with other symptom dimensions and impact on functioning. Psychiatry Res 250:277–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.067 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hand I, Büttner-Westphal H (1991) Die Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS): Ein halbstrukturiertes Interview zur Beurteilung des Schweregrades von Denk-und Handlungszwängen [The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: a semistructured interview to assess the severity of obsessions and compulsions]. Verhaltenstherapie 1(3):223–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harris CL, Dinn WM (2003) Subtyping obsessive-compulsive disorder: neuropsychological correlates. Behav Neurol 14(3–4):75–87.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2003/782718 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heinzel S, Kaufmann C, Grützmann R, Hummel R, Klawohn J, Riesel A, Kathmann N (2018) Neural correlates of working memory deficits and associations to response inhibition in obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuroimage Clin 17:426–434.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.10.039 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand J Stat 6(2):65–70Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    International Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) and OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Studies (OCGAS) (2017). Revealing the complex genetic architecture of obsessive-compulsive disorder using meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ivleva EI, Moates AF, Hamm JP, Bernstein IH, O’Neill HB, Cole D, Tamminga CA (2014) Smooth pursuit eye movement, prepulse inhibition, and auditory paired stimuli processing endophenotypes across the schizophrenia-bipolar disorder psychosis dimension. Schizophr Bull 40(3):642–652.  https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbt047 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jaafari N, Frasca M, Rigalleau F, Rachid F, Gil R, Olié JP, Vibert N (2013) Forgetting what you have checked: a link between working memory impairment and checking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Psychiatry 28(2):87–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.07.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jaafari N, Rigalleau F, Rachid F, Delamillieure P, Millet B, Olié J-PP, Vibert N (2011) A critical review of the contribution of eye movement recordings to the neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 124(2):87–101.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01721.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kashyap H, Kumar JK, Kandavel T, Reddy YCJ (2017) Relationships between neuropsychological variables and factor-analysed symptom dimensions in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 249:58–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.044 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kathmann N (2015) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder across the Life Span. In: James D, Wright (eds) International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences, vol 17, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 119–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.21021-0 (ISBN: 9780080970868)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kathmann N, Hochrein A, Uwer R, Bondy B (2003) Deficits in gain of smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia and affective disorder patients and their unaffected relatives. Am J Psychiatry 160:696–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kattoulas E, Smyrnis N, Stefanis NC, Avramopoulos D, Stefanis CN, Evdokimidis I (2011) Predictive smooth eye pursuit in a population of young men: I. Effects of age, IQ, oculomotor and cognitive tasks. Exp Brain Res 215(3–4):207–218.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-011-2887-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kloft L, Kischkel E, Kathmann N, Reuter B (2011) Evidence for a deficit in volitional action generation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychophysiology 48(6):755–761.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01138.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Koychev I, Joyce D, Barkus E, Ettinger U, Schmechtig A, Dourish CT, Deakin JFW (2016) Cognitive and oculomotor performance in subjects with low and high schizotypy: implications for translational drug development studies. Transl Psychiatry 6(5):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee KJ, Shin YW, Wee H, Kim YY, Kwon JS (2006) Gray matter volume reduction in obsessive-compulsive disorder with schizotypal personality trait. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30(6):1146–1149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Leigh JR, Zee DS (2015) The neurology of eye movements. Oxford University Press, Oxford.  https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199969289.001.0001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lencer R, Nagel M, Sprenger A, Zapf S, Erdmann C, Heide W, Binkofski F (2004) Cortical mechanisms of smooth pursuit eye movements with target blanking. An fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci 19(5):1430–1436.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03229.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lencer R, Reilly JL, Harris MS, Sprenger A, Keshavan MS, Sweeney JA (2010) Sensorimotor transformation deficits for smooth pursuit in first-episode affective psychoses and schizophrenia. Biol Psychiat 67(3):217–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.08.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lencer R, Sprenger A, Reilly JL, McDowell JE, Rubin LH, Badner JA, Sweeney JA (2015) Pursuit eye movements as an intermediate phenotype across psychotic disorders: evidence from the B-SNIP study. Schizophr Res 169(1–3):326–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2015.09.032 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lencer R, Trillenberg P, Trillenberg-Krecker K, Junghanns K, Kordon A, Brooks A, Arolt V (2004) Smooth pursuit deficits in schizophrenia, affective disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med 34(3):451–460.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291703001314 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lennertz L, Rampacher F, Vogeley A, Schulze-Rauschenbach S, Pukrop R, Ruhrmann S, Wagner M (2012) Antisaccade performance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected relatives: further evidence for impaired response inhibition as a candidate endophenotype. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262(7):625–634.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-012-0311-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leopold R, Backenstrass M (2015) Neuropsychological differences between obsessive-compulsive washers and checkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Anxiety Disord 30:48–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.12.016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lenzenweger MF, O’driscoll GA (2006) Smooth pursuit eye movement and schizotypy in the community. J Abnorm Psychol 115(4):779.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.115.4.779 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Linney YM, Murray RM, Peters ER, MacDonald AM, Rijsdijk F, Sham PC (2003) A quantitative genetic analysis of schizotypal personality traits. Psychol Med 33(5):803–816.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291703007906 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Macare C, Bates TC, Heath AC, Martin NG, Ettinger U (2012) Substantial genetic overlap between schizotypy and neuroticism: a twin study. Behav Genet 42(5):732–742.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-012-9558-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mason O, Linney Y, Claridge G (2005) Short scales for measuring schizotypy. Schizophr Res 78(2–3):293–296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.06.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mataix-Cols D, Wooderson S, Lawrence N, Brammer MJ, Speckens A, Phillips ML (2004) Distinct neural correlates of washing, checking, and hoarding symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61(6):564–576.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.6.564 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mattheisen M, Samuels JF, Wang Y, Greenberg BD, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Riddle MA (2015) Genome-wide association study in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCGAS. Mol Psychiatry 20(3):337–344.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2014.43 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    McCarthy MJ (2011) The eyes are the window to the brain: reviewing oculomotor abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 124(2):85–86.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01732.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Meier SM, Petersen L, Pedersen MG, Arendt MC, Nielsen PR, Mattheisen M, Mortensen PB (2014) Obsessive-compulsive disorder as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a nationwide study. JAMA Psychiatry 71(11):1215–1221.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moates AF, Ivleva EI, O’Neill HB, Krishna N, Cullum CM, Thaker GK, Tamminga CA (2012) Predictive pursuit association with deficits in working memory in psychosis. Biol Psychiat 72(9):752–757.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.03.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mukhopadhaya K, Krishnaiah R, Taye T, Nigam A, Bailey AJ, Sivakumaran T, Fineberg NA (2009) Obsessive-compulsive disorder in UK clozapine-treated schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a cause for clinical concern. J Psychopharmacol 23(1):6–13.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881108089582 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nagel M, Sprenger A, Hohagen F, Binkofski F, Lencer R (2008) Cortical mechanisms of retinal and extraretinal smooth pursuit eye movements to different target velocities. NeuroImage 41(2):483–492.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.02.058 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nestadt G, Samuels J, Riddle M, Bienvenu OJ, Liang KY, LaBuda M, Hoehn-Saric R (2000) A family study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(4):358–363.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.57.4.358 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nicolini H, Arnold P, Nestadt G, Lanzagorta N, Kennedy JL (2009) Overview of genetics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 170(1):7–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2008.10.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    O’Driscoll GA, Callahan BL (2008) Smooth pursuit in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review of research since 1993. Brain Cogn 68(3):359–370.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2008.08.023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    O’Reilly PF, Hoggart CJ, Pomyen Y, Calboli FC, Elliott P, Jarvelin MR, Coin LJ (2012) MultiPhen: joint model of multiple phenotypes can increase discovery in GWAS. PloS One 7(5):e34861.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034861 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pauls DL, Abramovitch A, Rauch SL, Geller DA (2014) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: an integrative genetic and neurobiological perspective. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(6):410–424.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3746 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pauls DL, Alsobrook JP II, Goodman W, Rasmussen S, Leckman JF (1995) A family study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152(1):76–84.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.152.1.76 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Poyurovsky M, Koran LM (2005) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with schizotypy vs. schizophrenia with OCD: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic implications. J Psychiatr Res 39(4):399–408.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2004.09.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Poyurovsky M, Zohar J, Glick I, Koran LM, Weizman R, Tandon R, Weizman A (2012) Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: implications for future psychiatric classifications. Compr Psychiatry 53(5):480–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Raine A (1991) The SPQ: a scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophr Bull 17(4):555.  https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/17.4.555 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Riesel A, Endrass T, Kaufmann C, Kathmann N (2011) Overactive error-related brain activity as a candidate endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from unaffected first-degree relatives. Am J Psychiatry 168(3):317–324.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10030416 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rossi A, Daneluzzo E (2002) Schizotypal dimensions in normals and schizophrenic patients: a comparison with other clinical samples. Schizophr Res 54(1–2):67–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00353-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sa AR, Hounie AG, Sampaio AS, Arrais J, Miguel EC, Elkis H (2009) Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and disorder in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine or haloperidol. Compr Psychiatry 50(5):437–442.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.11.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Samuels J, Nestadt G, Bienvenu OJ, Costa PT, Riddle MA, Liang KY, Cullen BA (2000) Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive—compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry 177(5):457–462.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.5.457 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52(3/4):591.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2333709 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shin NY, Lee AR, Park HY, Yoo SY, Kang DH, Shin MS, Kwon JS (2008) Impact of coexistent schizotypal personality traits on frontal lobe function in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32(2):472–478.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.09.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sobin C, Blundell ML, Weiller F, Gavigan C, Haiman C, Karayiorgou M (2000) Evidence of a schizotypy subtype in OCD. J Psychiatric Res 34(1):15–24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10696829
  77. 77.
    Spengler D, Trillenberg P, Sprenger A, Nagel M, Kordon A, Junghanns K, Lencer R (2006) Evidence from increased anticipation of predictive saccades for a dysfunction of fronto-striatal circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 143(1):77–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2005.08.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stewart SE, Yu D, Scharf JM, Neale BM, Fagerness JA, Mathews CA, McGrath L (2013) Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 18(7):788–798.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2012.85 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sweeney JA, Palumbo DR, Shear MK, Halper JP (1992) Pursuit eye movement dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 42:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Trillenberg P, Sprenger A, Talamo S, Herold K, Helmchen C, Verleger R, Lencer R (2017) Visual and non-visual motion information processing during pursuit eye tracking in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 267(3):225–235.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-016-0671-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    van den Heuvel OA, Remijnse PL, Mataix-Cols D, Vrenken H, Groenewegen HJ, Uylings HB, Veltman DJ (2009) The major symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder are mediated by partially distinct neural systems. Brain 132(4):853–868.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awn267 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Van Grootheest DS, Bartels M, Van Beijsterveldt CE, Cath DC, Beekman AT, Hudziak JJ, Boomsma DI (2008) Genetic and environmental contributions to self-report obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Dutch adolescents at ages 12, 14, and 16. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47(10):1182–1188.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825abd PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    van Kampen D, Deijen JB (2009) SPEM dysfunction and general schizotypy as measured by the SSQ: a controlled study. BMC Neurol 9(1):27.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-9-27 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vrbova K, Prasko J, Cinculova A, Krnacova B, Talova B, Tichackova A, Latalova K (2017) Schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Eur Psychiatry 41:S844Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yamamoto H, Tsuchida H, Nakamae T, Nishida S, Sakai Y, Fujimori A, Fukui K (2012) Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 8:579–583.  https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S38450 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wittchen HU, Zaudig M, Fydrich T (1997) Skid. Strukturiertes klinisches Interview für DSM-IV. Achse I und II. Handanweisung [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Axis I and II. Hogrefe, Manual].GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, Lee CK, Wittchen HU (1994) The cross national epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 55(3 Suppl.):5–10.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900007136 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katharina Bey
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Inga Meyhöfer
    • 3
    • 8
  • Leonhard Lennertz
    • 1
  • Rosa Grützmann
    • 4
  • Stephan Heinzel
    • 4
    • 5
  • Christian Kaufmann
    • 4
  • Julia Klawohn
    • 4
    • 6
  • Anja Riesel
    • 4
  • Ulrich Ettinger
    • 3
  • Norbert Kathmann
    • 4
  • Michael Wagner
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE)BonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  6. 6.Biomedical Sciences and PsychologyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  7. 7.Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Geriatric PsychiatryUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  8. 8.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations