The microbiome-gut-brain axis: implications for schizophrenia and antipsychotic induced weight gain

  • S. Kanji
  • T. M. Fonseka
  • V. S. Marshe
  • V. Sriretnakumar
  • M. K. Hahn
  • D. J. Müller
Invited Review

Abstract

With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug. The gut microbiota has been described in several psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety, but only a few reports have discussed the role of the microbiome in schizophrenia. The following review examines the evidence surrounding the gut microbiota in behavior and psychiatric illness, the role of the microbiota in schizophrenia and the potential for antipsychotics to alter the gut microbiota and promote adverse metabolic events.

Keywords

Gut microbiome Gut brain axis Schizophrenia Antipsychotic-induced weight gain 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kanji
    • 1
  • T. M. Fonseka
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. S. Marshe
    • 1
    • 4
  • V. Sriretnakumar
    • 5
    • 6
  • M. K. Hahn
    • 7
    • 8
  • D. J. Müller
    • 1
    • 7
  1. 1.Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Toronto Western HospitalTorontoCanada
  3. 3.St. Michael’s HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Psychiatric Neurogenetics LabMolecular Brain Science Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Laboratory Medicine and PathobiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  7. 7.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  8. 8.Complex Mental Illness, Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

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