Predicting treatment outcome on three measures for post-traumatic stress disorder
- 659 Downloads
The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of treatment outcome for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after treatment completion and at 15-months follow-up (n = 48), in a trial of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Imaginal Exposure and Cognitive Restructuring (E+CR). Factors associated with treatment outcome were investigated using regression analyses with the mean change scores in three assessor and self-rated PTSD symptomatology measures, including the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) from pre- to post-treatment and pre-treatment to follow-up as the dependent variables and demographics, trauma, clinical and personality measures as independent variables. Irrespective to outcome measures and assessment points it was found that four variables were able to predict significantly treatment outcome. These included baseline PTSD symptomatology, number of sessions, gender and therapy type. Overall, our results showed that it is difficult to use pre-treatment variables as a powerful and reliable tool for predicting treatment outcome, as significant predictors were found to be sample-specific and outcome measure-specific. Clinical relevance of the present results and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywordspost-traumatic stress disorder predictors treatment outcome
The research was supported by a grant (K/RED/4/332) to Kevin Power, Theresa McGoldrick and Keith Brown from the Chief Scientist Office (CSO), Scottish Executive. The views expressed in this paper are not necessarily those of the Scottish Executive.
- Blake D, Weathers F, Nagy L, Kaloupek D, Klauminzer G, Charney D, Keane T (1990) Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). National Center for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, BostonGoogle Scholar
- NICE (2005) CG26 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—Full guidelineGoogle Scholar
- Power K, McGoldrick T, Brown K Buchanan R, Sharp D, Swanson V, Karatzias A (2002) A controlled comparison of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing versus Exposure plus Cognitive Restructuring Versus Waiting List in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Clin Psychol Psychot 9:299–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shapiro F (1991) EMDR procedure: from EMD and EMD-R—a new treatment model for anxiety and related traumata. Behav Therapist 14:133–135Google Scholar
- Shapiro F (1995) Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: basic principles, protocols and procedures. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar