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Risk factors of lymphovascular invasion in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its influence on prognosis

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Lymphatic vascular invasion (LVI) is a poor prognostic factor for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC), but the risk factors of LVI and its relationship with clinicopathological of HPSCC remain unclear. This study aims to explore these issues.


We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of 170 patients with HPSCC from January 2011 to December 2015. The relationship between LVI and clinicopathologic was analyzed by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. The risk factors of LVI were examined using a logistic regression model, while risk factors of survival rate were carried out using the Cox regression model.


LVI occurred in 59 cases (34.7%). In multivariate analysis, T3–4 stage (HR = 2.877; 95% CI: 1.379–6.004; p = 0.005), N2–3 stage (HR = 2.325; 95% CI: 1.120–4.824; p = 0.024), and poor differentiation (HR = 2.983; 95% CI: 1.229–7.242; p = 0.016) were independent risk factors for LVI; positive LVI was an independent risk factor for local recurrence (HR = 2.488; 95% CI: 1.150–5.383; p = 0.021), poor 5-year OS (HR = 0.375; 95% CI: 0.232–0.606; p < 0.000), DSS (HR = 0.374; 95% CI: 0.235–0.595; p < 0.000), and DFS (HR = 0.454; 95% CI:0.254–0.813; p = 0.008).


T3–4 stage, N2–3 stage and poor differentiation are independent risk factors for LVI of HPSCC; LVI increases the local recurrence and regional recurrence rate, and decreases 5-year OS, DFS and DSS of HPSCC.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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Clinical Research Plan of SHDC( Grant NO. 16CR2029B).

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Authors and Affiliations



DP: conceptualization, methodology, writing—review and editing; GG: methodology, formal analysis, data curation, writing—original draft preparation, visualization; CXW: writing—review and editing, supervision; CLX, ZY, ZC: data curation.

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Correspondence to Dong Pin.

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Since this is a retrospective study, no approval of the Research Ethics Committee was carried out, but it has been registered in the Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.

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Gang, G., Xinwei, C., LiXiao, C. et al. Risk factors of lymphovascular invasion in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its influence on prognosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 279, 1473–1479 (2022).

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