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Association between serum vitamin D levels and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Aims and scope Submit manuscript



Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) was the most common neuro-otological disorder manifests as recurrent positional vertigo, but its risk factors are elusive. Recent studies suggest that decreased Vitamin D level may be a risk factor, but the literature is inconsistent.


The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, SinoMed, and Embase were systematically searched for studies on the association between BPPV and  serum Vitamin D levels published up to June 2019. Data from eligible studies were meta-analyzed using Stata 12.0.


A total of 18 studies were included in the analysis. Serum Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in individuals with BPPV than in controls (WMD − 2.46, 95% CI − 3.79 to − 1.12, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by geographical area showed that vitamin D level was significantly lower in BPPV than in controls in China (WMD − 3.27, 95% CI − 4.12 to − 2.43, p < 0.001), but not outside China (WMD − 0.90, 95% CI − 4.36 to 2.56, p = 0.611). Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in recurrent than non-recurrent BPPV across all countries in the sample (WMD 2.59, 95% CI 0.35–4.82, p = 0.023). Vitamin D deficiency emerged as an independent risk factor of BPPV (OR 1.998, 95% CI 1.400–2.851, p < 0.001).


The available evidence suggests that BPPV is associated with decreased levels of serum Vitamin D, and vitamin D deficiency was an independent risk factor for BPPV.

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This research was supported by the Yunnan Applied Basic Research Project (201801CH00572), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81860247, 81960242), Yunnan Province Medical Health Research Institute Project (2018NS0102), The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University Doctoral Research Fund Project (2017BS005) and "One hundred Young and Middle-aged Academic and Technical backbone" Training Program of Kunming Medical University (60118260105).

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Baiyuan Yang, Yongxia Lu and Dongmei Xing contribute equally to the present research.

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Yang, B., Lu, Y., Xing, D. et al. Association between serum vitamin D levels and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 277, 169–177 (2020).

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