In this study, we aimed to determine whether short-term (2 months) vitamin D supplementation could improve the allergic symptoms in AR patients.
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on allergic rhinitis patients with vitamin D deficiency from Nov. 2017–2018. 80 cases with allergic rhinitis and vitamin D deficiency were divided into two groups and vitamin D plus routine antihistamine medication (cetirizine) was prescribed for the study group, whereas the control group received cetirizine plus placebo. The clinical symptoms questionnaire was completed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment initiation. Vitamin D levels were re-measured at the end of the 8-week treatment course.
In total, 80 patients with allergic rhinitis and vitamin D deficiency were enrolled. Among them, 35 cases and 33 controls visited the clinic after 8 weeks; the mean age in the aforementioned groups was 29.68 years and 29.13 years demonstrating no meaningful difference (P > 0.05). At study initiation, the mean vitamin D level was 14 ng/ml and 14.67 ng/ml in the study and control groups, respectively, indicating no significant difference (P = 0.189). The mean serum vitamin D level at 8 weeks of treatment in the study group (24.08 ng/ml) indicated a statistically meaningful difference with the mean vitamin D level at baseline (P < 0.001). Comparison of the mean scores of symptoms severity showed no significant difference between the two groups at study initiation and 4 weeks later (P = 0.073), whereas a significant difference was obtained between baseline and 8 weeks of treatment initiation (P = 0.007).
Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation along with antihistamines can result in relative symptoms improvement in AR patients with vitamin D deficiency.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Chong SN, Chew FT (2018) Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia. World Allergy Organ J 11(1):17
Bauchau V, Durham SR (2004) Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Eur Respir J 24(5):758–764
Zuberbier T, Lötvall J, Simoens S, Subramanian SV, Church MK (2014) Economic burden of inadequate management of allergic diseases in the European Union: a GA2LEN review. Allergy 69(10):1275–1279
Kulthanan K, Chusakul S, Recto MT, Gabriel M, Aw DC, Prepageran N, Wong A, Leong JL, Foong H, Quang VT, Zuberbier T (2018) Economic burden of the inadequate management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria in asian countries based on the GA2LEN model. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 10(4):370–378
Bunyavanich S, Rifas-Shiman SL, Platts-Mills TA, Workman L, Sordillo JE, Camargo CA Jr, Gillman MW, Gold DR, Litonjua AA (2016) Prenatal, perinatal, and childhood vitamin D exposure and their association with childhood allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 137(4):1063–1070
Dogru M, Suleyman A (2016) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels in children with allergic or nonallergic rhinitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1(80):39–42
Bener A, Ehlayel MS, Bener HZ, Hamid Q (2014) The impact of vitamin D deficiency on asthma, allergic rhinitis and wheezing in children: an emerging public health problem. J Fam Community Med 21(3):154
Tian HQ, Cheng L (2017) The role of vitamin D in allergic rhinitis. Asia Pac Allergy 7(2):65–73
Muehleisen B, Gallo RL (2013) Vitamin D in allergic disease: shedding light on a complex problem. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(2):324–329
Goldring ST, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR, Robinson S, Yu C, Poulton S, Kirkby JC, Stocks J, Hooper R, Shaheen SO, Warner JO (2013) Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66627
Hyppönen EL, Sovio U, Wjst M, Patel S, Pekkanen J, Hartikainen AL, Järvelinb MR (2004) Infant vitamin D supplementation and allergic conditions in adulthood: northern Finland birth cohort 1966. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1037(1):84–95
Brożek JL, Bousquet J, Agache I, Agarwal A, Bachert C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Brignardello-Petersen R, Canonica GW, Casale T, Chavannes NH, de Sousa JC (2017) Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) guidelines—2016 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol 140(4):950–958
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96(7):1911–1930
Weiler JM, Meltzer EO, Benson PM, Weiler K, Widlitz MD, Freitag J (1994) A dose-ranging study of the efficacy and safety of azelastine nasal spray in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis with an acute model. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94(6):972–980
Norman AW (2008) From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. Am J Clin Nutr 88(2):491S–499S
Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, McElrath TF, O’connor GT, Sandel M, Iverson RE, Lee-Paritz A, Strunk RC, Bacharier LB (2016) Effect of prenatal supplementation with vitamin D on asthma or recurrent wheezing in offspring by age 3 years: the VDAART randomized clinical trial. JAMA 315(4):362–370
Tachimoto H, Mezawa H, Segawa T, Akiyama N, Ida H, Urashima M (2016) Improved control of childhood asthma with low-dose, short-term vitamin D supplementation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 71(7):1001–1009
Wjst M, Hyppönen E (2007) Vitamin D serum levels and allergic rhinitis. Allergy 62(9):1085–1086
Modh D, Katarkar A, Thakkar B, Jain A, Shah P, Joshi K (2014) Role of vitamin D supplementation in allergic rhinitis. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol 28(1):35
Maslova E, Hansen S, Jensen CB, Thorne-Lyman AL, Strøm M, Olsen SF (2013) Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease—a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13(1):199
Jerzyńska J, Stelmach W, Rychlik B, Majak P, Podlecka D, Woicka-Kolejwa K, Stelmach I (2018) Clinical and immunological effects of vitamin D supplementation during the pollen season in children with allergic rhinitis. Arch Med Sci AMS 14(1):122
Majak P, Jerzyńska J, Smejda K, Stelmach I, Timler D, Stelmach W (2012) Correlation of vitamin D with Foxp3 induction and steroid-sparing effect of immunotherapy in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 109(5):329–335
Boonstra A, Barrat FJ, Crain C, Heath VL, Savelkoul HF, O’Garra A (2001) 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has a direct effect on naive CD4+ T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells. J Immunol 167(9):4974–4980
This project was supported by a grant from the Research Deputy of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, with approval code of 30659.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have a conflict of interest to declare.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bakhshaee, M., Sharifian, M., Esmatinia, F. et al. Therapeutic effect of vitamin D supplementation on allergic rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 276, 2797–2801 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05546-x
- Vitamin D
- Allergic rhinitis
- Serum level of vitamin D