Endoscopic approach for management of septal perforation
Septal perforation (SP) is a rather uncommondisorder and the most frequent aetiology of SP is nasal surgery, but they can also be secondary to drug abuse, inhaled substances, trauma, neoplasms, or inflammatory systemic diseases.
Despite some asymptomatic presentations, the majority of SPs cause intermittent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, crusting, dryness, purulent discharge, and/or nasal whistling. Patients who have SP and mild symptoms usually require medical treatment such as nasal irrigations and ointments. Septal buttons may also be used in these patients. No gold standard technique has been recognized for the surgical management of SPs. The literature describes many methods of closure of SP. Many endoscopic techniques are available for septal repair, and the choice depends on the osteo-cartilaginous support, characteristics of the perforation (size, location) and the experience of the surgeon.
This article provides a meticulous review focusing on the endoscopic approaches to repair SP. Furthermore; educational drawings and tips and tricks are also discussed.
KeywordsEndoscopic techniques Nasal septum Septal perforation Surgery
This paper was supported by a research project from Storz Company that offered instruments and equipment to perform the dissection approaches.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Consultant for Roche lab.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
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