Effects of septorhinoplasty on smell perception

Abstract

Purpose

To assess whether significant changes in smell perception occur after septorhinoplasty, and evaluate whether septum deviation, allergic rhinitis, and surgical technique affect postoperative smell perception.

Methods

Thirty-four patients (> 18 years old) awaiting septorhinoplasty were included, while those with previous severe hyposmia or anosmia were excluded. The participants self-assessed their smell perception using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), where 0 mm indicated the inability to smell and 100 mm indicated normal smell perception. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was applied before the procedure, and 4 and 12 weeks after surgery.

Results

The UPSIT score showed no significant changes at 4 (p = 0.59; 95% CI − 0.35 to + 2) or 12 weeks (p = 0.16; 95% CI − 1.13 to + 0.66). A comparison of the VAS scores before and 4 weeks after surgery (p = 0.62; 95% CI − 0.63 to + 0.39) yielded similar results. However, the average VAS scores improved 12 weeks after surgery (p = 0.007; 95% CI + 0.22 to + 1.30). Olfactory function, measured using the UPSIT, was not influenced by open or closed surgical techniques (p ≥ 0.10), the presence or absence of rhinitis (p ≥ 0.15), or obstructive septum deviation (p ≥ 0.38). Twelve weeks after surgery, self-evaluated smell perception was better in patients who underwent a closed procedure rather than an open procedure (p = 0.006; 95% CI: −1.39 to −0.37).

Conclusion

A validated test demonstrates that septorhinoplasty does not compromise smell perception 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. However, it might improve smell perception by the self-report observation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Wysocki CJ, Gilbert AN (1989) National Geographic Smell Survey. Effects of age are heterogenous. Ann N Y Acad Sci 561:12–28

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Van Toller S (1999) Assessing the impact of anosmia: review of a questionnaire’s finding. Chem Senses 24:705–712

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Seiden AM (2004) Postviral olfactory loss. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 37:1159–1166

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Champion R (1966) Anosmia associated with corrective rhinoplasty. Br J Plast Surg 19(2):182–185

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Shemshadi H, Azimian M, Onsori MA, Azizabadi Farahani M (2008) Olfactory function following open rhinoplasty: a 6-month follow-up study. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 8:6

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Razmpa E, Saedi B, Safavi A, Mohammadi S (2013) Olfactory function after nasal plastic surgery. B-ENT 9:269–275

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Randhawa PS, Watson N, Lechner M, Ritchie L, Choudhury N, Andrews PJ (2016) The outcome of septorhinoplasty surgery on olfactory function. Clin Otolaryngol 41:15–20

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Fiser A (1990) Changes of olfaction due to aesthetic and functional nose surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 44(4):457–460

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N, Aria Workshop Group; World Health Organization (2001) Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(5 Suppl):S147–S334

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Doty RL, Shaman P, Kimmelman CP, Dann MS (1984) University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. Laryngoscope 94(2 Pt 1):176–178

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Fornazieri MA, Santos CA, Bezerra TFP, Pinna FR, Voegels RL, Doty RL (2015) Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Chem Senses 40:141–149

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Dürr J, Lindemann J, Keck T (2002) Untersuchungen zur Riechfunktion vor und nach funktionell-ästhetischer Nasenoperation. HNO 50:626–629

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Damm M, Eckel HE, Julgehulsing M, Hummel T (2003) Olfactory changes at threshold and suprathreshold levels following septoplasty with partial inferior turbinectomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 112:91–97

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Philpott CM, Rimal D, Tassone P, Prinsley PR, Premachandra DJ (2008) A study of olfactory testing in patients with rhinological pathology in the ENT clinic. Rhinology 46:34–39

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luciana Carolina Peruzzo Kokubo.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Research involving human participants

A prospective observational study was made involving humans. The study was reviewed and approved by the local research ethics committee.

Informed consent

Patients were included after they read and signed the informed consent form.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kokubo, L.C.P., Carvalho, T.B.O., Fornazieri, M.A. et al. Effects of septorhinoplasty on smell perception. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 276, 1247–1250 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-019-05356-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Septorhinoplasty
  • Smell perception
  • Olfaction
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Septal deviation
  • Septoplasty
  • VAS
  • UPSIT