Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a sudden, symptomatic inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It is usually caused by respiratory virus infection, but bacteria complicate for a small number of ARS patients. The differential diagnostics between viral and bacterial pathogens is difficult and currently no rapid methodology exists, so antibiotics are overprescribed. The electronic nose (eNose) has shown the ability to detect diseases from gas mixtures. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is a next-generation device that can separate ions based on their different mobility in high and low electric fields. Five common rhinosinusitis bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were analysed in vitro with DMS. Classification was done using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and k-nearest neighbour (KNN). The results were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and separate train and test sets. With the latter, 77% of the bacteria were classified correctly with LDA. The comparative figure with KNN was 79%. In one train-test set, P. aeruginosa was excluded and the four most common ARS bacteria were analysed with LDA and KNN; the correct classification rate was 83 and 85%, respectively. DMS has shown its potential in detecting rhinosinusitis bacteria in vitro. The applicability of DMS needs to be studied with rhinosinusitis patients.
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Conflict of interest
Niku Oksala, Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, and Antti Roine are shareholders of Olfactomics Ltd, which is about to commercialise proprietary technology for the detection of diseases by ion mobility spectrometry. The rest of the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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Virtanen, J., Hokkinen, L., Karjalainen, M. et al. In vitro detection of common rhinosinusitis bacteria by the eNose utilising differential mobility spectrometry. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 275, 2273–2279 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-018-5055-8