Gender differences in the presentation of dysphonia related to laryngopharyngeal reflux disease: a case-control study
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To investigate the voice quality impairments in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) according to the gender.
Controlled multi-center study.
Materials and methods
80 LPR patients (40 males and 40 females) with reflux finding score (RFS) > 7 and reflux symptom index (RSI) > 13 were included and clinically compared according to gender. To be considered as LPR patients, subjects responded to an empiric therapeutic trial based on pantoprazole intake and diet recommendations for 3 months or had positive pH/Impedance metry. Voice Handicap Index (VHI); Short Form Healthy Survey 36 (SF36), blinded Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain and Instability (GRBASI); aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were assessed in all patients and compared with 80 healthy controls (40 males and 40 females) according to gender.
The most common reasons for the consultation were, respectively, globus sensation in males (22.5%) and dysphonia (27.5%) in female who complained more of breathing difficulties and choking episodes related to LPR than males (p = 0.024). From a quality of life standpoint, female had increased significant impact of LPR disease on vitality and mental health than male. Compared to healthy subjects, both LPR male and female patients had stronger values of G, R, B, S, I, VHI, percent jitter, percent shimmer, and soft palate index than controls. In addition, LPR female had stronger values of lowest fundamental frequency and all aerodynamic measurements than controls.
As showed in many other laryngeal conditions, voice quality of female could be more impaired by LPR than male. Some anatomical, histological and functional factors can be suspected and need additional future researches.
KeywordsLaryngopharyngeal Reflux Laryngitis Voice
American Journal Expert for the proofreading of the manuscript. This research has been subsidized by the ARC No. AUWB-2012-12/17-UMONS convention from Communauté Française de Belgique.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
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