European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 274, Issue 4, pp 1821–1834 | Cite as

Role of antioxidants in prevention of age-related hearing loss: a review of literature

  • Elham Tavanai
  • Ghassem MohammadkhaniEmail author
Review Article


Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is one of the most prevalent chronic degenerative conditions. It is characterized by a decline in auditory function. ARHL is caused by the interaction of multiple factors, including cochlear aging, environment, genetic predisposition, and health comorbidities. The primary pathology of ARHL includes the hair cells loss, stria vascularis atrophy, and loss of spiral ganglion neurons as well as the changes in central auditory pathways. The research to date suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA deletion (mtDNA) play a major role in pathophysiology of ARHL. Therefore, similar to other otological conditions, several studies have also showed that antioxidants can slow ARHL, but some also indicate that antioxidant therapy is not a magic elixir that will prevent or treat hearing loss associated with aging completely, but why? All available clinical trials, including animal and human studies, in English language that examined the protective effects of antioxidants against ARHL were reviewed. Materials were obtained by searching ELSEVIER, PubMed, Scopus, Web of knowledge, Google Scholar databases, Clinical trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Although ARHL has been shown to be slowed by supplementation with antioxidants, particularly in laboratory animals, a few studies have investigated the effect of interventions against ARHL in humans. High-quality clinical trials are needed to investigate if ARHL can be delayed or prevented in humans. However, it seems that targeting several cell-death pathways is better than targeting the only oxidative stress pathway.


Age-related hearing loss Presbycusis Oxidative stress mtDNA deletion Antioxidant therapy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Ethical approval

In this review, all procedures performed in studies involving human participants or animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee.


  1. 1.
    Du Z, Yang Q, Liu L, Li S, Zhao J, Hu J, Liu C, Qian D, Gao C (2015) NADPH oxidase 2-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the ventral cochlearnucleus of d-galactose-induced aging rats. Neuroscience 286:281–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seidman MD, Ahmad N, Bai U (2002) Molecular mechanisms of age-related hearing loss. Ageing Res Rev 1(3):331–343CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seidman MD, Ahmad N, Joshi D, Seidman J, Thawani S, Quirk WS (2004) Age-related hearing loss and its association with reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial DNA damage. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 552:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazelová J, Popelar J, Syka J (2003) Auditory function in presbycusis: peripheral vs. central changes. Exp Gerontol 38(1–2):87–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gates GA, Mills JH (2005) Lancet Presbycusis 366(9491):1111–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen B, Zhong Y, Peng W, Sun Y, Kong WJ (2010) Age-related changes in the central auditory system: comparison of d-galactose-induced aging rats and naturally aging rats. Brain Res 1344:43–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han C, Someya S (2013) Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Mol Cell Neurosci 55:95–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fetoni AR, Picciotti PM, Paludetti G, Troiani D (2011) Pathogenesis of presbycusis in animal models: a review. Exp Gerontol 46(6):413–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perez P, Bao J (2011) Why do hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea die during aging? Aging Dis. 2(3):231–241PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Someya S, Prolla TA (2010) Mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis in age-related hearing loss. Mech Ageing Dev 131(7–8):480–486CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yamasoba T, Someya S, Yamada C, Weindruch R, Prolla TA, Tanokura M (2007) Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA mutations in age-related hearing loss. Hear Res 226(1–2):185–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ateş NA, Unal M, Tamer L, Derici E, Karakaş S, Ercan B, Pata YS, Akbaş Y, Vayisoğlu Y, Camdeviren H (2005) Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in presbycusis. Otol Neurotol 26(3):392–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chisolm TH, Willott JF, Lister JJ (2003) The aging auditory system: anatomic and physiologic changes and implications for rehabilitation. Int J Audiol 42(2):2S3–2S10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bielefeld EC, Tanaka C, Chen GD, Henderson D (2010) Age-related hearing loss: is it a preventable condition? Hear Res 264(1–2):98–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamasoba T, Lin FR, Someya S, Kashio A, Sakamoto T, Kondo K (2013) Current concepts in age-related hearing loss: epidemiology and mechanistic pathways. Hear Res 303:30–38CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Someya S, Tanokura M, Weindruch R, Prolla TA, Yamasoba T (2010) Effects of caloric restriction on age-related hearing loss in rodents and rhesus monkeys. Curr Aging Sci 3(1):20–25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sha SH, Kanicki A, Dootz G, Talaska AE, Halsey K, Dolan D, Altschuler R, Schacht J (2008) Age-related auditory pathology in the CBA/J mouse. Hear Res 243(1–2):87–94CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamasoba T (2015) Interventions to prevent age-related hearing loss. In: Miller et al. (eds) Free radicals in ENT pathology, oxidative stress in applied basic research and clinical practice. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp 335–349Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frisina RD, Walton JP (2006) Age-related structural and functional changes in the cochlear nucleus. Hear Res 216–217:216–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Caspary DM, Ling L, Turner JG, Hughes LF (2008) Inhibitory neurotransmission, plasticity and aging in the mammalian central auditory system. J Exp Biol 211(11):1781–1791CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seidman MD (2000) Effects of dietary restriction and antioxidants on presbyacusis. Laryngoscope 110(5 Pt 1):727–738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jiang H, Talaska AE, Schacht J, Sha SH (2007) Oxidative imbalance in the aging inner ear. Neurobiol Aging 28(10):1605–1612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Le T, Keithley EM (2007) Effects of antioxidants on the aging inner ear. Hear Res 226(1–2):194–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coling D, Chen S, Chi LH, Jamesdaniel S, Henderson D (2009) Age-related changes in antioxidant enzymes related to hydrogen peroxide metabolism in rat inner ear. Neurosci Lett 464(1):22–25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mohammadkhani G, Pourbakht A, Khanavi M, Faghihzadeh S (2013) Protective effect of Silymarin on noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Iranian Red Crescent Med J 15(11):e8890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Böttger EC, Schacht J (2013) The mitochondrion: a perpetrator of acquired hearing loss. Hear Res 303:12–19CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chen B, Zhong Y, Peng W, Sun Y, Hu YJ, Yang Y, Kong WJ (2011) Increased mitochondrial DNA damage and decreased base excision repair in the auditory cortex of d-galactose-induced aging rats. Mol Biol Rep 38(6):3635–3642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen H, Tang J (2014) The role of mitochondria in age-related hearing loss. Biogerontology 15:13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fujimoto C, Yamasoba T (2014) Oxidative Stresses and mitochondrial dysfunction in age-related hearing loss. Oxid Med Cell Longev 582–849Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bared A, Ouyang X, Angeli S, Du LL, Hoang K, Yan D, Liu XZ (2010) Antioxidant enzymes, presbycusis, and ethnic variability. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 143(2):263–268CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kopke R, Allen KA, Henderson D, Hoffer M, Frenz D, Van de Water T (1999) A radical demise. Toxins and trauma share common pathways in hair cell death. Ann N Y Acad Sci 884:171–191Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Han C, Someya S (2013) Maintaining good hearing: calorie restriction, Sirt3, and glutathione. Exp Gerontol 48(10):1091–1095CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ohinata Y, Miller JM, Altschuler RA, Schacht J (2000) Intense noise induces formation of vasoactive lipid peroxidation products in the cochlear. Brain Res 878:163–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ohlemiller KK, Wright JS, Dugan LL (1999) Early elevation of cochlear reactive oxygen species following noise exposure. Audiol Neurootol 4:229–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Henderson D, Bielefeld EC, Harris KC, Hu BH (2006) The role of oxidative stress in noise-induced hearing loss. Ear Hear 27(1):1–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kovacic P, Somanathan R (2008) Ototoxicity and noise trauma: electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, cell signaling, electrical effects, and protection by antioxidants: Practical medical aspects. Med Hypotheses 70(5):914–923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Poirrier AL, Pincemail J, Van Den Ackerveken P, Lefebvre PP, Malgrange B (2010) Oxidative stress in the cochlea: an update. Curr Med Chem 17(30):3591–3604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van De Water TR, Lallemend F, Eshraghi AA, Ahsan S, He J, Guzman J, Polak M, Malgrange B, Lefebvre PP, Staecker H, Balkany TJ, Malgrange B (2004) Caspases, the enemy within, and their role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of inner ear sensory cells. Otol Neurotol 25(4):627–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Neri S, Signorelli S, Pulvirenti D, Mauceri B, Cilio D, Bordonaro F, Abate G, Interlandi D, Misseri M, Ignaccolo L, Savastano M, Azzolina R, Grillo C, Messina A, Serra A, Tsami A (2006) Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction and tinnitus. Free Radic Res. 40(6):615–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Neri S, Mauceri B, Cilio D, Bordonaro F, Messina A, Malaguarnera M, Savastano M, Brescia G, Manci S, Celadini M (2002) Tinnitus and oxidative stress in a selected series of elderly patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 35:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Benkafadar N (2015) Oxidative stress: key mechanism of age-related cochlear sensory hair cell loss. J Int Soc Antioxid Nutrit Health Spl Issue 15th Int Antioxid Cong 1(1)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coling DE, Yu KC, Somand D, Satar B, Bai U, Huang TT, Seidman MD, Epstein CJ, Mhatre AN, Lalwani AK (2003) Effect of SOD1 overexpression on age- and noise-related hearing loss. Free Radic Biol Med 34(7):873–880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kidd AR III, Bao J (2012) Recent advances in the study of age-related hearing loss—a mini-review. Gerontology 58(6):490–496CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Houston DK, Johnson MA, Nozza RJ, Gunter EW, Shea KJ, Cutler GM, Edmonds JT (1999) Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B-12, and folate in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 69(3):564–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lasisi TJ, Lasisi AO (2015) Evaluation of serum antioxidants in age-related hearing loss. Aging Clin Exp Res. 27(3):265–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Spankovich C, Hood LJ, Mitchell P (2011) Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with the prevalence but not incidence of age-related hearing loss. J Nutr Health Aging. 15(10):896–900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Michikawa T, Nishiwaki Y, Kikuchi Y, Hosoda K, Mizutari K, Saito H, Asakura K, Milojevic A, Iwasawa S, Nakano M, Takebayashi T (2009) Serum levels of retinol and other antioxidants for hearing impairment among Japanese older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64(8):910–915CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Darrat I, Ahmad N, Seidman K, Seidman MD (2007) Auditory research involving antioxidants. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 15(5):358–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kopke R, Bielefeld EC, Liu J, Zheng J, Jackson R, Henderson D, Coleman JK (2005) Prevention of impulse noise-induced hearing loss with antioxidants. Acta Otolaryngol 125(3):235–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Henderson D, McFadden SL, Liu CC, Hight N, Zheng XY (1999) The role of antioxidants in protection from impulse noise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 884:368–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kawamoto K, Sha SH, Minoda R, Izumikawa M, Kuriyama H, Schacht J, Raphael Y (2004) Antioxidant gene therapy can protect hearing and hair cells from ototoxicity. Mol Ther 9(2):173–181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rybak LP, Whitworth C, Somani S (1999) Application of antioxidants and other agents to prevent cisplatin ototoxicity. Laryngoscope 109(11):1740–1744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Someya S, Xu J, Kondo K, Ding D, Salvi RJ, Yamasoba T, Rabinovitch PS, Weindruch R, Leeuwenburgh C, Tanokura M, Prolla TA (2009) Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 J mice is mediated by Bak-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(46):19432–19437CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peng W, Hu Y, Zhong Y, Chen B, Sun Y, Yang Y, Kong W (2010) Protective roles of alpha-lipoic acid in rat model of mitochondrial DNA4834 bp deletion in inner ear. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci 30(4):514–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Romeo G, Giorgetti M (1985) Therapeutic effects of vitamin A associated with vitamin E in perceptual hearing loss. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 7(1–2):139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Heman-Ackah SE, Juhn SK, Huang TC, Wiedmann TS (2010) A combination antioxidant therapy prevents age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 143(3):429–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
     Ding D, Jiang H, Chen GD, Longo‐Guess C, Muthaiah VPK, Tian C, Sheppard A, Salvi R, Johnson KR (2016) N‐Acetyl‐cysteine prevents age‐related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ‐glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice. Aging 8(4)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sanz-Fernández R, Sánchez-Rodriguez C, Granizo JJ, Durio-Calero E, Martín-Sanz E (2016) Accuracy of auditory steady state and auditory brainstem responses to detect the preventive effect ofpolyphenols on age-related hearing loss in Sprague-Dawley rats. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 273(2):341–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kang JW, Choi HS, Kim K, Choi JY (2014) Dietary vitamin intake correlates with hearing thresholds in the older population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 99(6):1407–1413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Takumida M, Anniko M (2009) Radical scavengers for elderly patients with age-related hearing loss. Acta Otolaryngol 129(1):36–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Takumida M, Anniko M (2005) Radical scavengers: a remedy for presbyacusis. A pilot study. Acta Otolaryngol 125(12):1290–1295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Seidman MD, Khan MJ, Tang WX, Quirk WS (2002) Influence of lecithin on mitochondrial DNA and age-related hearing loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127(3):138–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nevado J, Sanz R, Sánchez-Rodríguez C, García-Berrocal JR, Martín-Sanz E, González-García JA, Esteban-Sánchez J, Ramírez-Camacho R (2010) Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) protects against aging-related caspase-mediated apoptosis in rat cochlear. Acta Otolaryngol 130(10):1101–1112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Derin A, Agirdir B, Derin N, Dinç O, Güney K, Ozcaglar H, Kilinçarslan S (2004) The effects of l-carnitine on presbyacusis in the rat model. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 29(3):238–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Salami A, Mora R, Dellepiane M, Manini G, Santomauro V, Barettini L, Guastini L (2010) Water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation (Q-TER(®)) in the treatment of presbycusis. Acta Otolaryngol 130(10):1154–1162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Durga J, Verhoef P, Anteunis LJ, Schouten E, Kok FJ (2007) Effects of folic acid supplementation on hearing in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 146(1):1–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ahn JH, Kang HH, Kim TY, Shin JE, Chung JW (2008) Lipoic acid rescues DBA mice from early-onset age-related hearing impairment. Neuro Report 19(13):1265–1269Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bielefeld EC, Coling D, Chen GD, Henderson D (2008) Multiple dosing strategies with acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) fail to alter age-related hearing loss in the Fischer 344/NHsd rat. J Negat Results Biomed 7:4CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sha SH, Kanicki A, Halsey K, Wearne KA and Schacht J (2012) Antioxidant-enriched diet does not delay the progression of age-related hearing loss. Neurobiol Aging 33(5):1010.e15–1010.e16Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kashio A, Amano A, Kondo Y, Sakamoto T, Iwamura H, Suzuki M, Ishigami A, Yamasoba T (2009) Effect of vitamin C depletion on age-related hearing loss in SMP30/GNL knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390(3):394–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shargorodsky J, Curhan SG, Eavey R, Curhan GC (2010) A prospective study of vitamin intake and the risk of hearing loss in men. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 142(2):231–236CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Polanski JF, Cruz OL (2013) Evaluation of antioxidant treatment in presbyacusis: prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised trial. J Laryngol Otol 127(2):134–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Davis RR, Kuo MW, Stanton SG, Canlon B, Krieg E, Alagramam KN (2007) N-Acetyl l-cysteine does not protect against premature age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice: a pilot study. Hear Res 226(1–2):203–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Alvarado JC, Fuentes-Santamaría V, Melgar-Rojas P, Valero ML, Gabaldón-Ull MC, Miller JM, Juiz JM (2015) Synergistic effects of free radical scavengers and cochlear vasodilators: a new otoprotective strategy for age-related hearing loss. Front Aging Neurosci 7:86CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kong WJ, Wang Y, Wang Q, Hu YJ, Han YC, Liu J (2006) The relation between d-galactose injection and mitochondrial DNA 4834 bp deletion mutation. Exp Gerontol 41(6):628–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yin S, Yu Z, Sockalingam R, Bance M, Sun G, Wang J (2007) The role of mitochondrial DNA large deletion for the development of presbycusis in fischer 344 rats. Neurobiol Dis 27(3):370–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Du Z, Yang Y, Hu Y, Sun Y, Zhang S, Peng W, Zhong Y, Huang X, Kong W (2012) A long-term high-fat diet increases oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in the inner ear of d-galactose-induced aging rats. Hear Res 287(1–2):15–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhong Y, Hu YJ, Yang Y, Peng W, Sun Y, Chen B, Huang X, Kong WJ (2011) Contribution of common deletion to total deletion burden in mitochondrial DNA from inner ear of d-galactose-induced aging rats. Mutat Res 712(1–2):11–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kong WJ, Hu YJ, Wang Q, Wang Y, Han YC, Cheng HM, Kong W, Guan MX (2006) The effect of the mtDNA4834 deletion on hearing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344(1):425–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bai U, Seidman MD, Hinojosa R, Quirk WS (1997) Mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging and possibly presbycusis: a human archival temporal bone study. Am J Otol 18:449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fischel-Ghodsian N, Bykhovskaya Y, Taylor K, Kahen T, Cantor R et al (1997) Temporal bone analysis of patients with presbycusis reveals high frequency of mitochondrial mutations. Hear Res 110:147–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Markaryan A, Nelson EG, Hinojosa R (2009) Quantification of the mitochondrial DNA common deletion in presbycusis. Laryngoscope 119:1184–1189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ohlemiller KK (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Contributions of mouse models to understanding of age- and noise-related hearing loss. Brain Res 1091(1):89–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Someya S, Yamasoba T, Kujoth GC, Pugh TD, Weindruch R, Tanokura M, Prolla TA (2008) The role of mtDNA mutations in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss in mice carrying a mutator DNA polymerase γ. Neurobiol Aging 29(7):1080–1092CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Keithley EM, Canto C, Zheng QY, Wang X, Fischel-Ghodsian N, Johnson KR (2005) Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and age-related hearing loss. Hear Res 209(1–2):76–85CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    McFadden SL, Ding D, Reaume AG, Flood DG, Salvi RJ (1999) Age-related cochlear hair cell loss is enhanced in mice lacking copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. Neurobiol Aging 20(1):1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lautermann J, Crann SA, McLaren J, Schacht J (1997) Glutathione-dependent antioxidant systems in the mammalian inner ear: effects of aging, ototoxic drugs and noise. Hear Res 114:75–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Someya S, Yamasoba T, Weindruch R, Prolla TA, Tanokura M (2007) Caloric restriction suppresses apoptotic cell death in the mammalian cochlea and leads to prevention of presbycusis. Neurobiol Aging 28(10):1613–1622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mannström P, Ulfhake B, Kirkegaard M, Ulfendahl M (2013) Dietary restriction reduces age-related degeneration of stria vascularis in the inner ear of the rat. Exp Gerontol 48(11):1173–1179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Han F, Wang O, Cai Q (2016) Anti-apoptotic treatment in mouse models of age-related hearing loss. J Otol 11(1):7–12Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Spankoich C, Hood LJ, Silver HJ, Lambert W, Flood VM, Mitchell P (2011) Associations between diet and both high and low pure tone averages and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in an older adult population-based study. J Am Acad Audiol 22(1):49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, McMahon CM, Mitchell P (2010) Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss. Am J Clin Nutr 92(2):416–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gopinath B, Flood VM, Teber E, McMahon CM, Mitchell P (2011) Dietary intake of cholesterol is positively associated and use of cholesterol-lowering medication is negatively associated with prevalent age-related hearing loss. J Nutr 141(7):1355–1361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ter Haar G, Venker-van Haagen AJ, van den Brom WE, van Sluijs FJ, Smoorenburg GF (2008) Effects of aging on brainstem responses to toneburst auditory stimuli: a cross-sectional and longitudinalstudy in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22(4):937–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Iwai H, Lee S, Inaba M, Sugiura K, Tomoda K, Yamashita T, Ikehara S (2001) Prevention of accelerated presbycusis by bone marrow transplantation in senescence-accelerated mice. Bone Marrow Transplant 28(4):323–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Angeli SI, Bared A, Ouyang X, Du LL, Yan D, Zhong Liu X (2012) Audio profiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis. Laryngoscope 122(11):2539–2542Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Audiology, School of RehabilitationTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations