European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 272, Issue 3, pp 607–611 | Cite as

How does parental smoking affect nasal mucociliary clearance in children?

  • Tulay Erden Habesoglu
  • Mustafa Kule
  • Zeynep Gokcen Kule
  • Hande Senem Deveci
  • Atilay Yaylaci
  • Ali Okan Gursel
  • Mehmet Habesoglu


Correlation between passive smoking and nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC) in pediatric population has not been reported before. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and nasal MCC in children whose parents smoke in or outside the house. Three groups of subjects were evaluated: control group (group 1) with 18 children who were not exposed to environmental smoke, 15 passive smokers living with at least one adult household member smoking outside the house (group 2), 17 passive smokers living with at least one adult household member smoking inside the house (group 3). Parents of children were asked to answer our questions regarding their smoking history, and nasal MCC time was assessed for all individuals of the 3 groups. The mean MCC value in control group, group 2 and group 3 were 7.33 ± 2.91, 10.00 ± 4.78 and 12.41 ± 3.44, respectively. Differences between the mean nasal MCC values of the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The comparison of MCC values between control group and group 2 did not reveal significant difference, but since p value was very close to significance level, in larger series it could be significant. (p = 0.067). Also, when we compared the MCC values between group 2 and group 3, there was no significant difference (p = 0.173). But, the difference between MCC values of control group and group 3 was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Parental smoking both inside or outside the house seemed to increase nasal mucociliary clearance time when they are compared with healthy controls. Further studies with larger study groups also measuring direct quantitative doses of smoking are needed to verify this important issue.


Parental smoking Nasal mucociliary clearance Passive smoking 


Conflict of interest

We do not have financial disclosure and any conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Fischer M, Hedberg K, Cardosi P et al (1997) Tobacco smoke as a risk factor for meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16:979–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nuorti JP, Butler JC, Farley MM et al (2000) Cigarette smoking and invasive pneumococcal disease. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. N Engl J Med 342:681–689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gedikondele JS, Longo-Mbenza B, Nzanza JM, Luila EL, Reddy P, Buso D (2011) Nose and throat complications associated with passive smoking among Congolese school children. Afr Health Sci 11:315–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bakoula CG, Kafritsa YJ, Kavadias GD, Lazopoulou DD, Theodoridou MC, Maravelias KP, Matsaniotis NS (1995) Objective passive-smoking indicators and respiratory morbidity in young children. Lancet 346:280–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M (2004) Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s health. Pediatrics 113:1007–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (1999) The report of the California environmental protection agency. Smoking and tobacco control monograph no. 10. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer InstituteGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mania M, Przybysz A, Kurylak A (2006) Passive smoking and frequency of occurrence of disease symptoms in the respiratory system in children aged 0–7. Przegl Lek 63:831–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Proença M, Fagundes Xavier R, Ramos D, Cavalheri V, Pitta F, Cipulo Ramos EM (2011) Immediate and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers. Rev Port Pneumol 17:172–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramos EM, De Toledo AC, Xavier RF, Fosco LC, Vieira RP, Ramos D, Jardim JR (2011) Reversibility of impaired nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers following a smoking cessation programme. Respirology 16:849–855CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Atef A, Zeid IA, Qotb M et al (2009) Effect of passive smoking on ciliary regeneration of nasal mucosa after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children. J Laryngol Otol 123:75–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De S, Leong SC, Fenton JE et al (2011) The effect of passive smoking on the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in nasal secretions of children. Am J Rhinol Allergy 25:226–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uslu H, Uslu C, Varoglu E, Demirci M, Seven B (2004) Effects of septoplasty and septal deviation on nasal mucociliary clearance. Int J Clin Pract 58:1108–1111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sleigh MA, Blake JR, Liron N (1988) The propulsion of mucus by cilia. Am Rev Respir Dis 137:726–741CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lorenzi-Filho G, Bo¨hm GM, Guimara˜es ET et al (1992) Correlation between rheologic properties and in vitro ciliary transport of rat nasal mucus. Biorheology 29:433–440Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Auerbach O, Hammond EC, Garfinkel L (1979) Changes in bronchial epithelium in relation to cigarette smoking. N Engl J Med 300:381–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Agius AM, Smallman LA, Pahor AL (1998) Age, smoking and nasal ciliary beat frequency. Clin Otolaryngol 23:227–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Verra F, Escudier E, Lebargy F et al (1995) Ciliary abnormalities in bronchial epithelium of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:630–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rayner CFJ, Rutman A, Dewar A et al (1995) Ciliary disorientation in patients with chronic upper respiratory tract inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:800–804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Raman AS, Swinburne AJ, Fedullo AJ (1983) Pneumococcal adherence to the buccal epithelial cells of cigarette smokers. Chest 83:23–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stanley PJ, Wilson R, Greenstone MA, MacWilliam L, Cole PJ (1986) Effect of cigarette smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency. Thorax 41:519–523CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vander Top EA, Wyatt TA, Gentry-Nielsen MJ (2005) Smoke exposure exacerbates an ethanol-induced defect in mucociliary clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:882–887CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang LF, White DR, Andreoli SM, Mulligan RM, Discolo CM, Schlosser RJ (2012) Cigarette smoke inhibits dynamic ciliary beat frequency in pediatric adenoid explants. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 146(4):659–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hinton AE, Herdman RC, Martin-Hirsch D, Saeed SR (1993) Parental cigarette smoking and tonsillectomy in children. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 18:178–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ey JL, Holberg CJ, Aldous MB, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM (1995) Passive smoke exposure and otitis media in the first year of life. Group Health Medical Associates. Pediatrics 95:670–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adair-Bischoff CE, Sauve RS (1998) Environmental tobacco smoke and middle ear disease in preschool-age children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 152:127–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haberg SE, Bentdal YE, London SJ, Kvaerner KJ, Nystad W, Nafstad P (2010) Prenatal and postnatal parental smoking and acute otitis media in early childhood. Acta Paediatr 99:99–105PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ilicali OC, Keleş N, Değer K, Savaş I (1999) Relationship of passive cigarette smoking to otitis media. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125:758–762CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bakhshaee M, Naderi HR, Ghazvini K, Sotoudeh K, Amali A, Ashtiani SJ (2012) Passive smoking and nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in daycare children. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 269:1127–1132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greenberg D, Givon-Lavi N, Broides A, Blancovich I, Peled N, Dagan R (2006) The contribution of smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae carriage in children and their mothers. Clin Infect Dis 42:897–903CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Principi N, Marchisio P, Schito GC, Mannelli S (1999) Risk factors for carriage of respiratory pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy children. Ascanius Project Collaborative Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18:517–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elwany S, Ibrahim AA, Mandour Z, Talaat I (2012) Effect of passive smoking on the ultrastructure of the nasal mucosa in children. Laryngoscope 122:965–969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Di Giuda D, Galli J, Calcagni ML, Corina L, Paludetti G, Ottaviani F, De Rossi G (2000) Rhinoscintigraphy: a simple radioisotope technique to study the mucociliary system. Clin Nucl Med 25:127–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Proctor DF, Wagner HN Jr (1965) Clearance of particles from the human nose. preliminary report. Arch Environ Health 11:366–371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nuutinen J (1996) Asymmetry in the nasal mucociliary transport rate. Laryngoscope 106:1424–1428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Soane RJ, Carney AS, Jones NS, Frier M, Perkins AC, Davis SS, Illum L (2001) The effect of nasal cycle on mucociliary clearance. Clin Otolaryngol 26:9–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Englender M, Chamovitz D, Harell M (1990) Nasal transit time in normal subjects and pathologic conditions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 103:909–912PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tulay Erden Habesoglu
    • 1
  • Mustafa Kule
    • 1
  • Zeynep Gokcen Kule
    • 1
  • Hande Senem Deveci
    • 1
  • Atilay Yaylaci
    • 1
  • Ali Okan Gursel
    • 1
  • Mehmet Habesoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyFatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research HospitalIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations