Advertisement

European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 271, Issue 1, pp 3–13 | Cite as

Indications and contraindications of auditory brainstem implants: systematic review and illustrative cases

  • Paul MerkusEmail author
  • Fillipo Di Lella
  • Giuseppe Di Trapani
  • Enrico Pasanisi
  • Milo A. Beltrame
  • Diego Zanetti
  • Maurizio Negri
  • Mario Sanna
Review Article

Abstract

The number of non-neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) indications for auditory brainstem implant (ABI) in the literature is increasing. The objective of this study was to analyze and discuss the indications for ABI. Retrospective chart review and systematic review were conducted at Quaternary referral skull base center and referring centers. Analysis of ABI cases with non-NF2 indications and systematic review presenting non-NF2 ABI cases were performed. Fourteen referred cases with ABI were identified. All cases had unsatisfactory results of ABI and all could have been rehabilitated with a cochlear implant (CI). Of these 14 cases, 9 improved with a cochlear implant, and 2 with a hearing aid, two are still planned for CI, one received bilateral CI, no ABI. In literature, we found 31 articles presenting 144 non-NF2 ABI cases with at least 7 different indications other than NF2. ABI should be restricted to those patients who have no other rehabilitation options. Patency of the cochlea and evidence of an intact cochlear nerve should be examined with imaging and electrophysiologic testing. Sometimes a CI trial should be planned prior to proceeding with ABI. We have shown that in many cases a CI is still possible and CI provided better results than ABI. In vestibular schwannoma in the only hearing ear, cochlear otosclerosis, temporal bone fractures, (presumed) bilateral traumatic cochlear nerve disruption, auto-immune inner ear disease and auditory neuropathy primarily CI are indicated. Traumatic bilateral cochlear nerve disruption is exceptionally unlikely. In cochlear nerve aplasia, testing should be performed prior to meeting indications for ABI. In malformations, ABI is indicated only in severe cochlear hypoplasia or cochlear aplasia.

Keywords

Auditory brainstem implant Deafness Treatment Meningitis Otosclerosis Temporal bone fracture Cochlear nerve Vestibular schwannoma Auditory neuropathy Cochlear implant Labyrinth malformation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We like to thank Spencer Voth, ENT surgeon, USA, for his excellent help.

Supplementary material

405_2013_2378_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 17 kb)
405_2013_2378_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (76 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 76 kb)
405_2013_2378_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (82 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 81 kb)
405_2013_2378_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (60 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 60 kb)
405_2013_2378_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 1787 kb)
405_2013_2378_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 6 (PDF 1152 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Schwartz MS, Otto SR, Brackmann DE, Hitselberger WE, Shannon RV (2003) Use of a multichannel auditory brainstem implant for neurofibromatosis type 2. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 81(1–4):110–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sanna M, DiLella F, Guida M, Merkus P (2012) Auditory brainstem implants in NF2 patients. Results and review of the literature. Otol Neurotol 33(2):154–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Di Lella F, Merkus P, Di Trapani G, Taibah A, Guida M, Sanna M (2013) Vestibular schwannoma in the only hearing ear: the role of the cochlear implant. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 122(2):91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thedinger BA, Cueva RA, Glasscock ME III (1993) Treatment of an acoustic neuroma in an only-hearing ear: case reports and considerations for the future. Laryngoscope 103(9):976–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramsden R, Khwaja S, Green K, O’Driscoll M, Mawman D (2005) Vestibular schwannoma in the only hearing ear: cochlear implant or auditory brainstem implant? Otol Neurotol 26(2):261–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yamakami I, Yoshinori H, Saeki N, Wada M, Oka N (2009) Hearing preservation and intraoperative auditory brainstem response and cochlear nerve compound action potential monitoring in the removal of small acoustic neurinoma via the retrosigmoid approach. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80(2):218–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aristegui M, Denia A (2005) Simultaneous cochlear implantation and translabyrinthine removal of vestibular schwannoma in an only hearing ear: report of two cases (neurofibromatosis type 2 and unilateral vestibular schwannoma). Otol Neurotol 26:205–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grayeli AB, Bouccara D, Kalamarides M, Ambert-Dahan E, Coudert C, Cyna-Gorse F, Sollmann WP, Rey A, Sterkers O (2003) Auditory brainstem implant in bilateral and completely ossified cochleae. Otol Neurotol 24(1):79–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grayeli AB, Kalamarides M, Bouccara D, Ambert-Dahan E, Sterkers O (2008) Auditory brainstem implant in neurofibromatosis type 2 and non-neurofibromatosis type 2 patients. Otol Neurotol 29(8):1140–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sollmann WP, Laszig R, Marangos N (2000) Surgical experiences in 58 cases using the nucleus 22 multichannel auditory brainstem implant. J Laryngol Otol Suppl 27:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanna M, Khrais T, Guida M, Falcioni M (2006) Auditory brainstem implant in a child with severely ossified cochlea. Laryngoscope 116(9):1700–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Merkus P, Free RH, Mylanus EAM, Stokroos R, Metselaar M, van Spronsen E, Grolman W, Frijns JHM (2010) Dutch Cochlear Implant Group (CION) consensus protocol on postmeningitis hearing evaluation and treatment. Otol Neurotol 31:1281–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steenerson RL, Gary LB, Wynens MS (1990) Scala vestibuli cochlear implantation for labyrinthine ossification. Am J Otol 11:360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bacciu S, Bacciu A, Pasanisi E, Vincenti V, Guida M, Barbot A, Berghenti T (2002) Nucleus multichannel cochlear implantation in partially ossified cochleas using the Steenerson procedure. Otol Neurotol 23(3):341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kemink JL, Zimmerman-Phillips S, Kileny PR, Firszt JB, Novak MA (1992) Auditory performance of children with cochlear ossification and partial implant insertion. Laryngoscope 102(9):1001–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lenarz T, Battmer RD, Lesinski A, Parker J (1997) Nucleus double electrode array: a new approach for ossified cochleae. Am J Otol 18(6 Suppl):S39–S41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rotteveel LJ, Proops DW, Ramsden RT, Saeed SR, van Olphen AF, Mylanus EA (2004) Cochlear implantation in 53 patients with otosclerosis: demographics, computed tomographic scanning, surgery, and complications. Otol Neurotol 25:943–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramsden R, Bance M, Giles E, Mawman D (1997) Cochlear implantation in otosclerosis: a unique positioning and programming problem. J Laryngol Otol 111(3):262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Toung JS, Zwolan T, Spooner TR, Telian SA (2004) Late failure of cochlear implantation resulting from advanced cochlear otosclerosis: surgical and programming challenges. Otol Neurotol 25(5):723–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merkus P, van Loon MC, Smit CF, Smits C, de Cock AFC, Hensen EF (2011) Decision making in advanced otosclerosis: an evidence-based strategy. Laryngoscope 121:1935–1941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Camilleri AE, Toner JG, Howarth KL, Hampton S, Ramsden RT (1999) Cochlear implantation following temporal bone fracture. J Laryngol Otol 113(5):454–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Serin GM, Derinsu U, Sari M, Gergin O, Ciprut A, Akdaş F, Batman C (2010) Cochlear implantation in patients with bilateral cochlear trauma. Am J Otolaryngol 31(5):350–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simons JP, Whitaker ME, Hirsch BE (2005) Cochlear implantation in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fractures. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 132(5):809–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Colletti V, Carner M, Miorelli V, Colletti L, Guida M, Fiorino F (2004) Auditory brainstem implant in posttraumatic cochlear nerve avulsion. Audiol Neurootol 9(4):247–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sennaroglu L, Colletti V, Manrique M, Laszig R, Offeciers E, Saeed S, Ramsden R, Sarac S, Freeman S, Andersen HR, Zarowski A, Ziyal I, Sollmann WP, Kaminsky J, Bejarano B, Atas A, Sennaroglu G, Yucel E, Sevinc S, Colletti L, Huarte A, Henderson L, Wesarg T, Konradsson K (2011) Auditory brainstem implantation in children and non-neurofibromatosis type 2 patients: a consensus statement. Otol Neurotol 32(2):187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Corrales CE, Monfared A, Jackler RK (2010) Facial and vestibulocochlear nerve avulsion at the fundus of the internal auditory canal in a child without a temporal bone fracture. Otol Neurotol 31(9):1508–1510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aftab S, Semaan MT, Murray GS, Megerian CA (2010) Cochlear implantation outcomes in patients with autoimmune and immune-mediated inner ear disease. Otol Neurotol 31(8):1337–1342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jagannathan J, Lonser RR, Stanger RA, Butman JA, Vortmeyer AO, Zalewski CK, Brewer C, Surowicz C, Kim HJ (2007) Cochlear implantation for hearing loss associated with bilateral endolymphatic sac tumors in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Otol Neurotol 28(7):927–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Breneman AI, Gifford RH, Dejong MD (2012) Cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder: long-term outcomes. J Am Acad Audiol 23(1):5–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jemec B, Grobbelaar AO, Harrison DH (2000) The abnormal nucleus as a cause of congenital facial palsy. Arch Dis Child 83(3):256–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Waterval JJ, Stokroos RJ, Dings J, Van Overbeeke JJ, Manni JJ (2011) Cerebral vasospasm after auditory brainstem implantation in a patient with hyperostosis cranialis interna. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 113(10):904–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sennaroglu L, Saatci I (2002) A new classification for cochleovestibular malformations. Laryngoscope 112(12):2230–2241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sennaroglu L, Ziyal I, Atas A, Sennaroglu G, Yucel E, Sevinc S, Ekin MC, Sarac S, Atay G, Ozgen B, Ozcan OE, Belgin E, Colletti V, Turan E (2009) Preliminary results of auditory brainstem implantation in prelingually deaf children with inner ear malformations including severe stenosis of the cochlear aperture and aplasia of the cochlear nerve. Otol Neurotol 30(6):708–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Warren FM III, Wiggins RH III, Pitt C, Harnsberger HR, Shelton C (2010) Apparent cochlear nerve aplasia: to implant or not to implant? Otol Neurotol 31(7):1088–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Song MH, Kim SC, Kim J, Chang JW, Lee WS, Choi JY (2011) The cochleovestibular nerve identified during auditory brainstem implantation in patients with narrow internal auditory canals: can preoperative evaluation predict cochleovestibular nerve deficiency? Laryngoscope 121(8):1773–1779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Colletti V, Shannon RV, Carner M, Veronese S, Colletti L (2010) Complications in auditory brainstem implant surgery in adults and children. Otol Neurotol 31(4):558–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beltrame MA, Bonfioli F, Frau GN (2000) Cochlear implant in inner ear malformation: double posterior labyrinthotomy approach to common cavity. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 57:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Merkus
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fillipo Di Lella
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Di Trapani
    • 2
  • Enrico Pasanisi
    • 3
  • Milo A. Beltrame
    • 4
  • Diego Zanetti
    • 5
  • Maurizio Negri
    • 6
  • Mario Sanna
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck SurgeryVU University Medical Center & EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care ResearchAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Otology and Skull Base SurgeryGruppo OtologicoPiacenza-RomeItaly
  3. 3.Section of Middle Ear Microsurgery and Otoneurosurgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  4. 4.Department of OtolaryngologyS. Maria del Carmine HospitalRoveretoItaly
  5. 5.Department of OtolaryngologyUniversity of Brescia and S. Gerardo HospitalMonzaItaly
  6. 6.Department of OtolaryngologyRamazzini HospitalCarpiItaly

Personalised recommendations