Skip to main content
Log in

Simultaneous in vivo measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature

  • Rhinology
  • Published:
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Nasal cavity volume and blood temperature along the nasal airways, reflecting the mucosal temperature, are considered to be the most important predictors of nasal air conditioning. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously in vivo measure intranasal air as well as mucosal temperature for the first time. Fifteen healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. Two combined miniaturized thermocouples were used for simultaneous recording of intranasal air and mucosal temperature within the anterior turbinate area close to the head of the middle turbinate without interruption of nasal breathing. The highest air and mucosal temperature values were detected at the end of expiration, the lowest values at the end of inspiration. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean mucosal temperature ranged from 30.2 ± 0.9 to 32.2 ± 0.8°C. The mean air temperature ranged from 28.5 ± 1.2 to 34.1 ± 0.7°C. The mean differences between air and mucosal temperature were 1.7 ± 0.5°C after inspiration and 1.9 ± 0.7°C after expiration. Simultaneous measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature are practicable. The detected temperature gradient between air and mucosa confirm a relevant heat exchange during inspiration and expiration. This gradient between air and mucosa is obligatory for heat and water exchange to ensure adequate nasal air conditioning.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Abbot DJ, Baroody FM, Naureckas E, Nacleiro RM (2001) Elevation of nasal mucosal temperature increases the ability of the nose to warm and to humidify air. Am J Rhinol 15:41–45

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cole P (1953) Further observations on the conditioning of respiratory air. J Laryngol Otol 67:669–681

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Cole P (1992) Nasal and oral airflow resistors. Site, function, and assessment. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 118:790–793

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Drettner B, Falck B, Simon H (1977) Measurements of the air conditioning capacity of the nose during normal and pathological conditions and pharmacological influence. Acta Otolaryngol 84:266–277

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Hanna LM, Scherer PW (1986) A theoretical model of localized heat and water vapour transport in the human respiratory tract. J Biomech Eng 108:19–27

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Keck T, Leiacker R, Heinrich A, Kühnemann S, Rettinger G (2000) Humidity and temperature profile in the nasal cavity. Rhinology 38:167–171

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Keck T, Leiacker R, Meixner D, Kühnemann S, Rettinger G (2001) Erwärmung der Atemluft in der Nase. HNO 49:36–40

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Keck T, Leiacker R, Lindemann J, Rettinger G, Kühnemann S (2001) Endonasales Temperatur- und Feuchteprofil nach Exposition zu verschieden klimatisierter Einatemluft. HNO 49:372–377

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Liener K, Leiacker R, Lindemann J, Rettinger G, Keck T (2003) Nasal mucosal temperature after exposure to cold, dry air and hot, humid air. Acta Otolaryngol 123:851–856

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Lindemann J, Keck T, Wiesmiller KM, Sander B, Brambs HJ, Rettinger G, Pless D (2004) A numerical simulation of intranasal air temperature during inspiration. Laryngoscope 114:1037–1041

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Rettinger G, Keck T (2002) Nasal mucosal temperature during respiration. Clin Otolaryngol 27:135–139

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Rettinger G, Keck T (2002) The effect of topical xylometazoline on the mucosal temperature of the nasal septum. Am J Rhinol 16:229–234

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Sikora T, Rettinger G, Keck T (2002) Impact of unilateral sinus surgery with resection of the turbinates via midfacial degloving on nasal air conditioning. Laryngoscope 112:2062–2066

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Stehmer V, Rettinger G, Keck T (2002) Intranasal temperature and humidity profile in patients with nasal septal perforation before and after surgical closure. Clin Otolaryngol 26:433–437

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lindemann J, Leiacker R, Wiesmiller K, Rettinger G, Keck T (2004) Immediate effect of benzalkonium-chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature. Clin Otolaryngol 29:357–361

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Lund VJ (1996) Nasal physiology: neurochemical receptors, nasal cycle and ciliary action. Allergy Asthma Proc 17:179–184

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Olsson P, Bende M (1985) Influence of environmental temperature on human nasal mucosa. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 94:153–155

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Olsson P, Bende M, Ohlin P (1985) The laser doppler flowmeter for measuring microcirculation in human nasal mucosa. Acta Otolaryngol 99:133–139

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Pless D, Keck T, Wiesmiller KM, Rettinger G, Aschoff AJ, Fleiter TR, Lindemann J (2004) Numerical simulation of air temperature and airflow patterns in the human nose during expiration. Clin Otolaryngol 29:642–647

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Strohl KP, Arnold JL, Decker MJ, Hoekje PL, McFadden ER (1992) Nasal flow-resistive responses to challenge with cold dry air. J Appl Physiol 72:1243–1246

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Walker JEC, Wells RE (1961) Heat and water exchange in the respiratory tract. Am J Med 30:259–267

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kerstin Wiesmiller.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wiesmiller, K., Keck, T., Leiacker, R. et al. Simultaneous in vivo measurements of intranasal air and mucosal temperature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264, 615–619 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-006-0232-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-006-0232-6

Keywords

Navigation