Analysis of factors affecting outcomes of pregnancy complicated by Echinococcus: an algorithm for approach and management
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The management of hydatid disease (HD) co-occurring with pregnancy remains a challenge for physicians. We aimed to determine factors that were related to fetal and maternal outcomes in HD complicated pregnancies and then develop an approach/treatment algorithm.
All patients at the participating hospitals were first analyzed to determine whether they had HD. Only patients diagnosed with HD during the course of their pregnancy were included. Certain cyst-related factors (diameter, localization, increase in size, and viability) and certain pregnancy-related factors (treatments, gestational week, maternal co-morbidities, and delivery type) were investigated. Nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) was performed to determine the relationships between the categories of variables.
Out of 12,926 pregnancies, 27 cases were diagnosed with HD. In 13 cases, each developed at least one fetal problem. Using Albendazol in first trimester, presence of an active cyst, increased diameter by more than 1 cm during pregnancy and a cyst diagnosed in the second trimester were associated with at least one fetal problem. According to the NPCA results, cyst diameter when first diagnosed was related to fetal outcomes; a cyst greater than 10 cm was associated with “at least one fetal problem”. Cysts 5–10 cm in diameter were in a neutral position, while 2–5 cm in diameter were in the “no problems” group.
HD mostly affects fetus. If cyst-related and pregnancy-related variables are optimal, close follow-up on a monthly is the best course of action. However, in high-risk conditions, percutaneous interventions or surgery should be considered.
KeywordsEchinococcus granulosus Pregnancy Treatment Fetal outcomes
SC: Protocol/project development, Data analysis, Manuscript writing/editing. OO Data collection or management, Data Analysis. EK Data collection or management, Manuscript writing/editing. NC Data collection or management, Project Development, Data Analysis. OZS Data collecting or management, Manuscript writing/editing. OT Data collecting or management, Data analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Ethics Committee of Yuzuncu Yıl University Faculty of Medicine (date: 28 February 2017; reference: 08) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.