Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 297, Issue 6, pp 1503–1508 | Cite as

Pregnancy outcomes and superiorities of prophylactic cervical cerclage and therapeutic cervical cerclage in cervical insufficiency pregnant women

  • Yanyan Liu
  • Zikan Ke
  • Wanmin Liao
  • Hanping Chen
  • Shiqing Wei
  • Xiaoquan Lai
  • Xi Chen
General Gynecology



To compare the clinical effect of prophylactic cervical cerclage and therapeutic cervical cerclage on pregnancy outcome and operative factors in cervical insufficiency pregnant women.


A retrospective study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 in a maternity ward, which included women who have had a single pregnancy and have been carried out a McDonald cerclage. All maternal medical records were reviewed. The efficacy of cerclage for preventing late foetal loss was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.


The results showed that there were significant associations between cerclage operations and pregnancy outcomes in the duration of pregnancy prolongation in terms of live births, gestation age, live birth and cesarean section rate. In prophylactic cervical cerclage, compared with therapeutic cervical cerclage, cervical length before surgery was significantly longer (32.7 ± 5.8 vs 19.9 ± 7.3 mm, p < 0.0001). Mean operative duration and postoperative length of hospital stay in prophylactic cervical cerclage were shorter than those in therapeutic cervical cerclage (22.1 ± 10.3 vs 28.9 ± 13.0 min, p = 0.0241 and 5.6 ± 1.8 vs 7.0 ± 2.8 days, p = 0.0354), respectively. Compared with therapeutic cerclage, prophylactic cerclage had more advantages in gestational age at delivery (35.2 ± 5.5 and 31.7 ± 6.5 weeks, p = 0.0061), deliveries < 37 gestational weeks (40 vs 69.2%, p = 0.0159), live births (93.3 vs 69.2%, p = 0.0143) and the duration of pregnancy prolongation in terms of live births (19.5 ± 5.0 vs 12.0 ± 8.2 weeks, p = 0.0002). There was a higher cesarean section rate in prophylactic group than that in therapeutic group (50 vs 25.6%, p = 0.0383). The logistic analysis showed that the cervical length before surgery was the only independent prognostic factor [OR 2.860 (1.425, 5.742) p = 0.0031] for pregnancy outcome, and that is the cervical length before surgery affected late foetal loss.


Our study suggests that, both prophylactic cervical cerclage and therapeutic cervical cerclage reduce the incidence of recurrent abortion or preterm birth and efficiently extend the length of the pregnancy with live births. The prophylactic cervical cerclage has more advantages in operative time, length of hospital stay after surgery, gestational age at delivery, live births and preterm birth. The length of the cervical before surgery is an independent risk factor for pregnancy outcomes when pregnant women appear in the cervical shortening is less than normal. Cervical cerclage is an effective surgical technique to prevent recurrent abortion or late foetal loss.


Preterm birth Cervical insufficiency Cervical cerclage 



This work was supported by Grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 71473098).

Author contributions

YYL: data collection and analysis, manuscript writing. ZKK: data collection, manuscript writing. WML: data collection and analysis. SQW: data analysis. HPC: project designing, manuscript editing. XQL: manuscript editing. XC: project designing, data analysis, manuscript editing. All authors reviewed the report and approved the final version.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hospital Infection Control, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Foreign LanguagesHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesia, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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