Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 297, Issue 5, pp 1101–1113 | Cite as

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant and non-pregnant Iranian women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Sahar Sabour
  • Mohsen Arzanlou
  • Hamid Vaez
  • Giti Rahimi
  • Amirhossein Sahebkar
  • Farzad Khademi



Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a vaginal disorder which occurs either symptomatic or asymptomatic because of an imbalance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis in the vagina. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Iran.


We used national (SID, Irandoc, Iranmedex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge) electronic databases to systematically search and collect available studies using related keywords (up to 1 December 2017). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to select eligible studies.


The overall prevalence of BV among Iranian women was 18.9% (95% CI 14–25). Gardnerella vaginalis was the most prevalent isolated bacteria. The prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women was 28% (95% CI 15.1–45.9) which was higher compared with pregnant women who had a prevalence of 16.5% (95% CI 12.5–21.6).


The present review revealed a high prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women. Given that BV is associated with a series of reproductive complications such as infertility, taking preventive measures such as awareness of patients as well as monitoring and controlling of syndrome are essential.


Bacterial vaginosis Pregnant women Non-pregnant women Iran 


Author contributions

SS: Data collection, MA: Manuscript editing, HV: Data collection and manuscript editing, GR: Project guide, AS: Manuscript editing, FK: Data collection and analysis and manuscript writing.


This plan does not have any financial burden.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Not required.

Informed consent

Not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, School of MedicineArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, School of MedicineZabol University of Medical SciencesZabolIran
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of MedicineArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran
  4. 4.Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology InstituteMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  5. 5.Neurogenic Inflammation Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  6. 6.School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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