Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 295, Issue 4, pp 935–941 | Cite as

Comorbidity profiles among women with postcoital bleeding: a nationwide health insurance database

  • Hsin-Li Liu
  • Chuan-Mei Chen
  • Lee-Wen Pai
  • Yueh-Juen Hwu
  • Horng-Mo Lee
  • Yueh-Chin ChungEmail author
General Gynecology



Most of the existing studies on postcoital bleeding (PCB) in Western countries. To date, no study has focused on the various PCB-related comorbidities in Taiwan women. This work aims to analyze and compare the presence or absence of PCB among Taiwanese women with gynecological comorbidity.


This study is a population-based retrospective cohort investigation. Outpatients with PCB after the index date were considered. A total of 2377 female patients with PCB (ICD-9 626.7) were identified using a nationwide outpatient sample from 2001 to 2010. For comparison, 7131 cases were randomly matched with the study group in terms of gender and age.


The PCB incidence rate was 39–59 cases/100,000 Taiwanese women, with mean age (±SD) of 36.74 ± 10.79 years, median age of 36 years, and mode age of 29 years. Women with PCB exhibited 1.47-fold risk of cervical dysplasia and 1.59-fold risk for malignant neoplasm of cervix. Young women with PCB showed high risk of cervical cancer. The most common benign diseases among PCB- related comorbidities were cervical erosion and ectropion (20.66%), followed by vaginitis and vulvovaginitis (19.18%). Comparison between PCB and non-PCB groups indicated several significant high-risk comorbidities including cervical polyps, cervical erosion, leukoplakia of cervix, intrauterine contraceptive device, cervicitis, vaginitis, menopause, dyspareunia, and vulvodynia.


This study provides evidence that PCB-related comorbidities manifested benign diseases (51.58%), lower genital tract infection (46.11%), and cervical cancer (2.31%). Thus, healthcare providers must ensure that appropriate routine screening tests and counseling are given to women with PCB.


Postcoital bleeding Comorbidity Cervical dysplasia Cervical erosion Gynecology infection 


Author contributions

HLL, MSN: conceptualization: lead; data curation: lead; formal analysis: lead; investigation: lead; writing—original draft: lead; writing—review and editing: lead; CMC, MSN: conceptualization: supporting; data curation: supporting; LWP, MSN: data curation: supporting; formal analysis: supporting; YJH, ph.D.: conceptualization: supporting; methodology: supporting; HML, ph.D.: conceptualization: supporting; methodology: supporting; YCC, Ph.D.: conceptualization: lead; data curation: equal; formal analysis: equal; writing—review and editing: equal.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was supported by a Grant from the Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology (CTU105-P-05).

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Because the requested patient data were completely anonymous, not identifiable and retrospective collected between 2001 and 2010, this study was exempt for informed consent from all participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hsin-Li Liu
    • 1
  • Chuan-Mei Chen
    • 1
  • Lee-Wen Pai
    • 1
  • Yueh-Juen Hwu
    • 1
  • Horng-Mo Lee
    • 2
  • Yueh-Chin Chung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NursingCentral Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Medical Laboratory Sciences and BiotechnologyTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China

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