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Table 1 List of publications identified by searching literature databases for studies on the detection of the LH surge [3, 6, 7, 1018]

From: Comparison between the different methods developed for determining the onset of the LH surge in urine during the human menstrual cycle

References Sample size Definition of the LH surge Numeric expression of LH surge
Park et al. [11] 46 cycles
46 women
LH surge: first LH value with a visually marked increase compared with prior LH values
Baseline LH: mean of five LH values immediately preceding the designated day of onset of the LH surge
2.5-fold increase from baseline
Direito et al. [6] 283 cycles
107 women
LH surge: series of high LH values occurring near the time of ovulation, determined by ultrasound scanning Reaching 30 % of the amplitude of the peak
Johansson et al. [12] 42 cycles
22 women
LH surge: first significant rise over follicular phase levels A fourfold increase over baseline
Moghissi [13] 30 women No definition of LH surge Not provided
Hoff et al. [7] 5 women LH surge: precisely determined from sequential measurements of LH every 2 h First LH value reaching the mean + 2 SD of the six preceding values
Brown et al. [14] 11 women LH surge: increments of hormones consistent with normally cyclic gonadal function. Surges constrained to last no longer than 2 consecutive days A rise of more than two SD over both the previous value and the following 5 days’ mean
Testart et al. [10] 20 women Ovulation occurs 36–38 h after onset of the LH surge Increase ≥182 % over the mean preceding four values
Baird et al. [15] 707 cycles
221 women
Variations in the oestrogen to PdG ratio A sequence of 5 days where oestrogen/PdG for the first day is the highest of the 5 days, and the ratio values for the last 2 days are ≤40 % of the first day. The second day in this sequence is designated the day of the luteal transition
Zeeman et al. [16] NA Modelling coupled oscillators with frequency modulation through which the LH surge could arise as transient resonance Computed by convolving with exponential decay
Keye and Jaffe [17] 10 women Effects of administered GnRH on maximal LH increase and mean are subtended Not provided
Young and Jaffe [18] 19 cycles Effects of administered GnRH on maximal LH increase and mean are subtended Increase in estradiol 72 h prior to LH rise
Seibel [3] NA LH surge: first rise from baseline followed by substantial rise Using CUSUM to determine sustained upswing from baseline
  1. CUSUM cumulative sum control chart, GnRH gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, LH luteinising hormone, SD standard deviation