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Ectopic pregnancy: a review



Ectopic pregnancy (EP) presents a major health problem for women of child-bearing age. EP refers to the pregnancy occurring outside the uterine cavity that constitutes 1.2–1.4 % of all reported pregnancies. All identified risk factors are maternal: pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, smoking, tubal surgery, induced conception cycle, and endometriosis. These developments have provided the atmosphere for trials using methotrexate as a non-surgical treatment for EP. The diagnosis measure of EP is serum human chorionic gonadotropin, urinary hCGRP/i-hCG, progesterone measurement, transvaginal ultrasound scan, computed tomography, vascular endothelial growth factor, CK, disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 and hysterosalpingography. The treatment option of EP involves surgical treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy, medical treatment is usually systemic or through local route, or by expectant treatment.


It was concluded that review data reflect a decrease in surgical treatment and not an actual decline in EP occurrence so that further new avenues are needed to explore early detection of the EP.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2



Ectopic pregnancy


Cervical ectopic pregnancy


Ovarian ectopic pregnancy


Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy


Interstitial pregnancy


Pelvic inflammatory disease


Prokineticin receptor


In vitro fertilization


Assisted reproductive technology


Serum human chorionic gonadotropin


Transvaginal ultrasound scan


Computed tomography


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Disintegrin and metalloprotease-12






Positive predictive value


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Correspondence to Rajbala Singh, Muhammad Afzal or Firoz Anwar.

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Rana, P., Kazmi, I., Singh, R. et al. Ectopic pregnancy: a review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 288, 747–757 (2013).

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  • β-hCG
  • TVS
  • Methotrexate
  • Laparotomy