Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 284, Issue 2, pp 313–317 | Cite as

Influence of pregnancy and smoking on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation values and time until maximum response

  • Luis G. C. Nicolau
  • Wellington P. MartinsEmail author
  • Francisco M. P. Gallarreta
  • Jailson C. Lima
  • Francisco Mauad Filho
Materno-fetal Medicine



To evaluate the effect of pregnancy and smoking on endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to determine the time necessary until the occurrence of maximum brachial artery dilation after stimulus.


This study was an observational study evaluating 133 women, who were grouped as follows: non-smoking pregnant women (N = 47), smoking pregnant women (N = 33), non-smoking women (N = 34), and smoking pregnant women (N = 19). The diameter of the brachial artery was measured at baseline and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 s after stimulus. The relative change of brachial artery was determined for each of these four moments. FMD measured at 60 s after stimulus was compared between the groups.


The maximum FMD was observed at 60 s after cuff release in all groups. FMD was greater among non-smoking pregnant women compared to smoking pregnant women (11.50 ± 5.77 vs. 8.74 ± 4.83; p = 0.03) and also between non-smoking non-pregnant women compared to smoking non-pregnant women (10.52 ± 4.76 vs. 7.21 ± 5.57; p = 0.03).


Maximum FMD was observed approximately 60 s after stimulus in all groups regardless of smoking and pregnancy status. The smoking habit seems to lead to endothelial dysfunction both in pregnant and non-pregnant women, as demonstrated by the lower FMD in smokers.


Ultrasonography Endothelium Pregnancy Smoking 


Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis G. C. Nicolau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wellington P. Martins
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Francisco M. P. Gallarreta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jailson C. Lima
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francisco Mauad Filho
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Escola de Ultra-sonografia e Reciclagem Médica de Ribeirão Preto (EURP)Ribeirão PrêtoBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ginecologia e ObstetríciaFaculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP)Ribeirão PrêtoBrazil

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