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The role of 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser in melasma management

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Abstract

Melasma is a skin dyspigmentation condition that disproportionately affects women, particularly those of Latino, Black, and Asian ethnicities, significantly impacting their quality of life. Efforts to identify effective treatment options have led to the exploration of picosecond laser technology which utilizes brief pulse durations to break down pigment while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. The 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser, currently FDA approved for benign pigmented lesion removal, including melasma, is a promising solution. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of the 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser both as a stand-alone treatment for melasma and in combination with topical agents. We conducted a PubMed search using “755-nm picosecond” AND “melasma,” “755-nm picosecond” AND “hydroquinone,” and “755-nm picosecond” AND “tranexamic acid.” English-written studies examining this laser as monotherapy or in combination with the topical agents were included. Those not meeting the criteria or lacking data related to melasma improvement were excluded. Monotherapy with the 755-nm picosecond laser led to a 50–75% improvement in melasma appearance in 40% of participants and a significant reduction in the average Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score (p < 0.001) in all patients of one study. Notably, the use of topical tranexamic acid (TTA) in conjunction with the picosecond laser exhibited the most significant degree of improvement in hemi-MASI scores compared to the laser monotherapy group at one- and three-months post-treatment (p < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was also significantly higher for the combination group (p < 0.05). In contrast, combining hydroquinone (HQ) with the picosecond laser demonstrated no significant difference in outcomes compared to HQ alone, both of which were less effective than TTA with picosecond laser. The combination of the 755-nm picosecond laser with TTA proves promising, outperforming both laser monotherapy and laser with HQ. While monotherapy with the picosecond laser or topical agents is effective, literature favors combination therapy, especially the 755-nm picosecond laser with TTA, for superior benefits and minimal side effects. Ultimately, individualized regimens, considering factors like skin type, should be prioritized, given the heightened risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, especially in skin of color patients.

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AP, DJ, and YA all contributed to performing a comprehensive search and writing the manuscript. KN provided us with his guidance, support, and constructive feedback throughout the process. KN also reviewed the final version of our paper to ensure it was well-prepared for submission.

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Correspondence to Anika Pulumati.

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Pulumati, A., Jaalouk, D., Algarin, Y.A. et al. The role of 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser in melasma management. Arch Dermatol Res 316, 60 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-023-02794-0

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