UVA-photoprotective potential of silymarin and silybin
Exposure to solar radiation is a major cause of environmental human skin damage. The main constituent of solar UV light is UVA radiation (320–400 nm); however, the need for protection against UVA has been marginalized for a long time. As a result, there is still a lack of useful agents for UVA protection. In this study, the effect of silymarin (SM) and its main constituent silybin (SB) pre-treatment on UVA-stimulated damage to primary human dermal fibroblasts were carried out. The cells were pre-treated for 1 h with SB or SM and then were exposed to UVA light, using a solar simulator. The effect of SB and SM on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) level, caspase-3 activity, single-strand breaks (SSB) formation and protein level of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and heat shock protein (HSP70) was evaluated. Treatment with both SM and SB resulted in a reduction in UVA-stimulated ROS generation and SSB production, as well as in the prevention of GSH depletion, a decrease in the activation of caspase-3 and protein level of MMP-1. They also moderately increased HO-1 level and reduced HSP70 level. Our data showed that both SM and SB are non-phototoxic and have UVA-photoprotective potential and could be useful agents for UV-protective dermatological preparations.
KeywordsFlavonolignan Dermal fibroblasts SPF Oxidative damage Heat shock protein Metalloproteinase-1
This work was financially supported by the Grant GACR 15-10897S, IGA_LF_2016_012, IGA_LF_2017_011 and the Institutional Support of Palacký University in Olomouc RVO 61989592. We wish to thank Eva Směšná (University Hospital in Olomouc) for assistance with skin tissue donor recruitment and prof. Vladimír Křen (Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic) for providing pure flavonolignans for HPLC-MS analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work follows ethical standards and does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. The use of skin tissue for isolation of skin fibroblasts complied with the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital in Olomouc and Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, Olomouc (date: 6.4.2009, Ref. number: 41/09) and all patients had given their written informed consent.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 7.Fehér P, Ujhelyi Z, Váradi J, Fenyvesi F, Róka E, Juhász B, Varga B, Bombicz M, Priksz D, Bácskay I, Vecsernyés M (2016) Efficacy of pre- and post-treatment by topical formulations containing dissolved and suspended Silybum marianum against UVB-induced oxidative stress in guinea pig and on HaCaT keratinocytes. Molecules 21:1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Diffey BL, Robson J (1989) Sun protection factor in vitro. J Soc Cosmet Chem 40:127–133Google Scholar
- 24.Wischermann K, Popp S, Moshir S, Scharfetter-Kochanek K, Wlaschek M, de Gruijl F, Hartschuh W, Greinert R, Volkmer B, Faust A, Rapp A, Schmezer P, Boukamp P (2008) UVA radiation causes DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations and tumorigenic transformation in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. Oncogene 27:4269–4280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Cho JW, Il KJ, Lee KS (2013) Downregulation of type I collagen expression in silibinin-treated human skin fibroblasts by blocking the activation of Smad2/3-dependent signaling pathways: potential therapeutic use in the chemoprevention of keloids. Int J Mol Med 31:1148–1152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Simon MM, Reikerstorfer A, Schwarz A, Krone C, Luger TA, Jäättelä M, Schwarz T (1995) Heat shock protein 70 overexpression affects the response to ultraviolet light in murine fibroblasts. Evidence for increased cell viability and suppression of cytokine release. J Clin Invest 95:926–933CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.de la Coba F, Aguilera J, de Gálvez MV, Alvarez M, Gallego E, Figueroa FL, Herrera E (2009) Prevention of the ultraviolet effects on clinical and histopathological changes, as well as the heat shock protein-70 expression in mouse skin by topical application of algal UV-absorbing compounds. J Dermatol Sci 55:161–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar