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Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 306, Issue 8, pp 683–688 | Cite as

Could adult female acne be associated with modern life?

  • R. G. R. Albuquerque
  • M. A. D. Rocha
  • E. Bagatin
  • S. Tufik
  • M. L. AndersenEmail author
Review

Abstract

In recent years, the prevalence of adult female acne has increased, but the reason for this increase remains unclear. Acne is one of the most common skin disorders. It can be triggered or worsened by endogenous and exogenous factors, including genetic predisposition, hormone concentrations, diet, smoke and stress; although the interaction with this last factor is not well understood. Modern life presents many stresses including urban noises, socioeconomic pressures and light stimuli. Women are especially affected by stress during daily routine. The recent insertion in the labor market is added to the duties of the mother and wife. Women also have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Sleep restriction is added to these factors, with several negative consequences on health, including on hormonal secretion and the immune system. This is further complicated by the natural variation in sleep architecture across the menstrual cycle. Recent studies have brought new data about the mechanisms and possible factors involved. This review aims to establish a connection between stress, sleep deprivation and adult female acne.

Keywords

Adult female acne Stress Sleep Skin Immunity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Associação Fundo de Incentivo à Pesquisa (AFIP) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. R. Albuquerque
    • 1
  • M. A. D. Rocha
    • 2
  • E. Bagatin
    • 2
  • S. Tufik
    • 1
  • M. L. Andersen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychobiologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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