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Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris

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Abstract

In acne vulgaris, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could play a dual role; i.e., protective by acting against Propionibacterium acnes, pro-inflammatory by acting as signalling molecules. The cutaneous expression of 15 different AMPs was investigated in acne patients; furthermore, the impact of isotretinoin therapy on AMP expression was analysed in skin biopsies from 13 patients with acne vulgaris taken before, during and after a 6-month treatment cycle with isotretinoin using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cutaneous expression of the AMPs cathelicidin, human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lactoferrin, lysozyme, psoriasin (S100A7), koebnerisin (S100A15), and RNase 7 was upregulated in untreated acne vulgaris, whereas α-defensin-1 (HNP-1) was downregulated compared to controls. While relative expression levels of cathelicidin, HBD-2, lactoferrin, psoriasin (S100A7), and koebnerisin (S100A15) decreased during isotretinoin treatment, only those of cathelicidin and koebnerisin returned to normal after 6 months of isotretinoin therapy. The increased expression of lysozyme and RNase 7 remained unaffected by isotretinoin treatment. The levels of granulysin, RANTES (CCL5), perforin, CXCL9, substance P, chromogranin B, and dermcidin were not regulated in untreated acne patients and isotretinoin had no effect on these AMPs. In conclusion, the expression of various AMPs is altered in acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin therapy normalizes the cutaneous production of distinct AMPs while the expression of others is still increased in healing acne. Considering the antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory role of AMPs, these molecules could serve as specific targets for acne therapy and maintenance of clinical remission.

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Abbreviations

CI:

Confidence interval

AMP:

Antimicrobial peptide

HBD:

Human β-defensin

PBGD:

Porphobilinogen deaminase

S100A7:

Psoriasin

S100A15:

Koebnerisin

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Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Dr. Robert Besch (Dept. of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany) for providing us with some valuable reagents and equipment. The study was supported by the Wissenschaftliches Herausgeberkollegium der Münchener Medizinischen Wochenschrift e.V.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Miklós Sárdy.

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J. Schauber and M. Sárdy contributed equally to this work.

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Borovaya, A., Dombrowski, Y., Zwicker, S. et al. Isotretinoin therapy changes the expression of antimicrobial peptides in acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Res 306, 689–700 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-014-1477-3

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