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Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 306, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of collagen in normal skin and skin fibrosis

  • Olubukola Babalola
  • Andrew Mamalis
  • Hadar Lev-Tov
  • Jared JagdeoEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality that is transforming clinical diagnosis in dermatology and other medical fields. OCT provides a cross-sectional evaluation of the epidermis and dermis and allows in vivo imaging of skin collagen. Upregulated collagen content is a key feature of fibrotic skin diseases. These diseases are often managed by the practitioner’s subjective assessment of disease severity and response to therapies. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the principles of OCT and present available evidence on the ability of OCT to image skin collagen in vivo for the diagnosis and management of diseases characterized by skin fibrosis. We review OCT studies that characterize the collagen content in normal skin and fibrotic skin diseases including systemic sclerosis and hypertrophic scars secondary to burn, trauma, and other injury. We also highlight several limitations of OCT and suggest enhancements to improve OCT imaging of skin fibrosis. We conclude that OCT imaging has the potential to serve as an objective, non-invasive measure of collagen’s status and disease progression for use in both research trials and clinical practice. The future use of OCT imaging as a quantitative imaging biomarker of fibrosis will help identify fibrosis and facilitate clinical examination in monitoring response to treatment longitudinally without relying on serial biopsies. The use of OCT technology for quantification of fibrosis is in the formative stages and we foresee tremendous growth potential, similar to the ultrasound development paradigm that evolved over the past 30 years.

Keywords

Skin imaging Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Collagen Skin fibrosis 

Abbreviations

CT

Computed tomography

FD

Frequency domain

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

mRSS

Modified Rodnan skin score

OCT

Optical coherence tomography

PS-OCT

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

SS-OCT

Swept-source optical coherence tomography

TD

Time domain

US

Ultrasound

Notes

Acknowledgments

The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through grant number UL1 TR000002 and linked award TL1 TR000133. The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through grant number UL1 TR000002 and linked award KL2 TR000134. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R33AI080604. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olubukola Babalola
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew Mamalis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hadar Lev-Tov
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Jared Jagdeo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California at DavisSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Dermatology ServiceSacramento VA Medical CenterMatherUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyState University of New York Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  4. 4.Department of DermatologyAlbert Einstein School of MedicineBronxUSA

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