Although the deltoid represents the main motor muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), its standardized preoperative assessment regarding morphology and function is still not established. Its clinical relevance and interactions with major biomechanical parameters like the medialization of the center of rotation (COR) regarding shoulder function after RSA are yet unknown. We evaluated contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the deltoid as possible surrogate marker for individual deltoid properties of patients receiving an RSA, and its predictive value for postoperative shoulder function.
Materials and methods
35 patients were prospectively assessed. Before and 6 months after RSA, dynamic deltoid perfusion, caliber and a combination of both (PE*caliber, named DeltoidEfficacy) was quantified by CEUS. Changes of deltoid properties and the predictive value of preoperative CEUS-based deltoid properties for shoulder function after RSA were assessed. To analyze interrelating effects with deltoid properties, COR-medialization and deltoid lengthening were quantified.
Deltoid caliber and perfusion significantly increased after RSA (p = 0.0004/p = 0.002). Preoperative deltoid caliber, perfusion and the combined value DeltoidEfficacy significantly correlated with shoulder function after RSA within the whole study cohort (caliber: r = 0.445, p = 0.009; perfusion: r = 0.593, p = 0.001; DeltoidEfficacy: r = 0.66; p = 0.0002). The predictive value of DeltoidEfficacy for shoulder function after RSA varied among patient subgroups: Multivariate regression analysis revealed the strongest prediction in patients with either very high or very low deltoid properties (Beta = 0.872, r = 0.84, p = 0.0004), independent from COR-medialization or deltoid lengthening. Contrary, in patients with intermediate deltoid properties, COR-medialization revealed the strongest predictive value for shoulder function after RSA (Beta = 0.660, r = 0.597; p = 0.024).
Deltoid CEUS seems to allow an assessment of individual deltoid properties and deltoid adaptations after RSA. Deltoid CEUS seems to predict shoulder function after RSA and might support an identification of patients requiring special attention regarding COR positioning.
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We thank the German Society for Ultrasound in Medicine (DEGUM) for funding the study (Grant number 2015-05-27-A)
The study was funded by the German Society for Ultrasound in Medicine (DEGUM) (Grant number 2015–05-27-A).
Conflict of interest
None of the authors, their immediate family, and any research foundation with which they are affiliated did receive any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article.
The prospective longitudinal cohort study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Heidelberg (S626/2014) and registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRK S00010934).
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Fischer, C., Flammer, S., Kauczor, HU. et al. Preoperative deltoid assessment by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as predictor for shoulder function after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective pilot study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 140, 1001–1012 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00402-019-03281-w
- Deltoid assessment
- Center of rotation
- Reverse shoulder arthroplasty