Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

, Volume 137, Issue 5, pp 617–624 | Cite as

Biomechanics of the osteoporotic spine, pain, and principles of training

  • Guido Schröder
  • Andreas Knauerhase
  • Holger S. Willenberg
  • Guenther Kundt
  • Detlef Wendig
  • Hans-Christof Schober
Orthopaedic Surgery



A fracture is a clinical manifestation of osteoporosis and is one of the main causes of functional limitations and chronic pain in patients with osteoporosis. Muscle and coordination training are recommended to the patients as general measures. We inquired whether sling training is better than traditional physiotherapy in relieving pain and improving abilities of daily living.


Fifty patients with osteoporosis were divided into two groups. Group A performed conventional physiotherapy, while Group B performed sling training exercises. Data were collected before and after the intervention and after 3 months. The registered parameters were stamina, posture, and pain. Posture, torques, and the associated strength of spinal muscles were studied in a biomechanical model in order to estimate the forces acting on the spine. Furthermore, the factors that exerted a positive impact on the success of therapy were registered.


Forty-four patients (88%) completed the study. Positive effects of the training were noted in both groups, but significantly better effects were observed in the group that performed sling training. A reduction of pain independent of the number of fractures, significantly reduced torques, and reduced muscle strength were registered.


Specific training programs helped to increase muscle strength and straightening the back thereby reducing the force needed on a permanent basis and decreasing torque in the spine. Sling training was more effective in that than traditional physiotherapy.


Osteoporosis Fracture Biomechanics Sling exercises 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

All procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the authorized ethics committee for human experimentation (institutional and national) and the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guido Schröder
    • 1
  • Andreas Knauerhase
    • 2
  • Holger S. Willenberg
    • 2
  • Guenther Kundt
    • 3
  • Detlef Wendig
    • 1
  • Hans-Christof Schober
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineKlinikum Südstadt RostockRostockGermany
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal MedicineRostock University Medical CenterRostockGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Biostatistics and Informatics in Medicine and Aging ResearchUniversity of RostockRostockGermany

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