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Recommendation for measuring clinical outcome in distal radius fractures: a core set of domains for standardized reporting in clinical practice and research



Lack of standardization of outcome measurement has hampered an evidence-based approach to clinical practice and research.


We adopted a process of reviewing evidence on current use of measures and appropriate theoretical frameworks for health and disability to inform a consensus process that was focused on deriving the minimal set of core domains in distal radius fracture.


We agreed on the following seven core recommendations: (1) pain and function were regarded as the primary domains, (2) very brief measures were needed for routine administration in clinical practice, (3) these brief measures could be augmented by additional measures that provide more detail or address additional domains for clinical research, (4) measurement of pain should include measures of both intensity and frequency as core attributes, (5) a numeric pain scale, e.g. visual analogue scale or visual numeric scale or the pain subscale of the patient-reported wrist evaluation (PRWE) questionnaires were identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures to measure these concepts, (6) for function, either the Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire or PRWE-function subscale was identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures, and (7) a measure of participation and treatment complications should be considered core outcomes for both clinical practice and research.


We used a sound methodological approach to form a comprehensive foundation of content for outcomes in the area of distal radius fractures. We recommend the use of symptom and function as separate domains in the ICF core set in clinical research or practice for patients with wrist fracture. Further research is needed to provide more definitive measurement properties of measures across all domains.

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The consensus paper is the result of two workshops organized jointly by the international society for fracture repair (ISFR) and the international osteoporosis foundation (IOF) supported by unrestricted grants from Amgen, Lilly, Novartis, Pearltec, Servier, and Stryker. This manuscript was approved by the fracture working group under the committee of scientific advisors of the IOF.

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Correspondence to Amy Hoang-Kim.

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On behalf of the distal radius working group of ISFR and IOF.

Appendix: members of the distal radius working group of ISFR and IOF in alphabetical order

Appendix: members of the distal radius working group of ISFR and IOF in alphabetical order

F Angst (Switzerland), D Beaton (Canada), MK Chang (Switzerland), C Cooper (UK), J Goldhahn (Switzerland), A Hoang-Kim (Canada), N Hollevoet (Belgium), A Johnstone (UK), J Jupiter (US), A Ladd (US), P Lips (NL), J MacDermid (Canada), M Marks (Switzerland), B Mitlak (US), G Moeller (Switzerland), TL Müller (Switzerland), F Pegreffi (Italy), S Pennaforte (France), JE Puzas (US), D Rikli (Switzerland), D Service (Ireland), T Shisha (France), B Simmen (Switzerland), T Rozental (US), O Ulrich (Switzerland), D A Wahl (Switzerland).

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Goldhahn, J., Beaton, D., Ladd, A. et al. Recommendation for measuring clinical outcome in distal radius fractures: a core set of domains for standardized reporting in clinical practice and research. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 134, 197–205 (2014).

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  • Distal radius fracture
  • Consensus
  • Core outcome measures
  • Health measurement
  • Pain
  • Function