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Potential of remote monitoring to prevent sensing and detection failures in implantable cardioverter defibrillators

Potenzial der Fernüberwachung zur Prävention von Detektionsfehlern bei implantierbaren Kardioverter-Defibrillatoren



Sensing malfunction and misinterpretation of intracardiac electrograms (IEGMs) in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) may lead to inadequate device activity such as inappropriate shock delivery or unnecessary mode-switching. Remote monitoring has the potential for early detection of sensing malfunction or misclassification and may thus prevent adverse device activity. Therefore, the authors analyzed the amount, nature, and distribution of misclassification in current ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator technology using the device transmissions of the IN-TIME study population.


All transmitted tachyarrhythmic episodes in the 664 IN-TIME patients, comprising 2214 device-classified atrial fibrillation (DC-AF) episodes lasting ≥ 30 s and 1330 device-classified ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (DC-VT/VF) episodes, were manually analyzed by two experienced cardiologists.


After evaluation of all DC-VT/VF episodes, a total of 300 VT/VF events (23.1%) were false-positive, with supraventricular tachycardia being the most frequent cause (51.7%), followed by atrial fibrillation (21.3%) and T‑wave oversensing (21.0%). A total of 15 patients with false-positive DC-VT/VF received inappropriate shocks. According to the inclusion criteria, 616 IEGMs with DC-AF were assessed. A total of 19.7% were false-positive AF episodes and R‑wave oversensing was the most common reason (55.9%).


Remote monitoring offers the opportunity of early detection of signal misclassification and thus early prevention of adverse device reaction, such as inappropriate shock delivery or mode-switching with intermittent loss of atrioventricular synchrony, by correcting the underlying causes.



Fehldetektionen und -interpretationen intrakardialer Elektrogramme (IEGM) bei Patienten mit implantierbarem Kardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) können zu unangemessenen Geräteaktivitäten wie inadäquater Schockabgabe oder unnötigem Wechsel in den Mode-Switch führen. Fernüberwachung bietet das Potenzial, solche Fehldetektionen oder -klassifikationen frühzeitig zu erkennen, und könnte so eine unerwünschte Geräteaktivität verhindern helfen. Wir haben daher Häufigkeit, Art und Verteilung von Fehldetektionen bei aktueller ICD-Technik bzw. Geräten der kardialen Resynchronisationstherapie mit Defibrillator (CRT-D) anhand der Geräteübertragungen der IN-TIME-Studienpopulation analysiert.


Alle übertragenen tachyarrhythmischen Episoden bei den 664 IN-TIME-Patienten, darunter 2214 geräteklassifizierte Vorhofflimmerepisoden (DC-AF) mit einer Dauer von ≥ 30 s und 1330 geräteklassifizierte ventrikuläre Tachykardie- oder Kammerflimmerepisoden (DC-VT/VF), wurden von zwei erfahrenen Kardiologen manuell analysiert.


Nach Auswertung aller DC-VT/VF-Episoden waren insgesamt 300 VT/VF-Ereignisse (23,1 %) falsch-positiv, wobei eine supraventrikuläre Tachykardie die häufigste Ursache war (51,7 %), gefolgt von Vorhofflimmern (21,3 %) und T‑Wellen-Oversensing (21,0 %). Insgesamt 15 Patienten mit falsch-positiver DC-VT/VF erhielten unangemessene Schockabgaben. Gemäß den Einschlusskriterien wurden 616 IEGM mit DC-AF beurteilt. Insgesamt 19,7 % waren falsch-positive Vorhofflimmerepisoden, wobei R‑Wellen-Oversensing den häufigsten Grund darstellte (55,9 %).


Fernüberwachung bietet die Chance der frühzeitigen Erkennung von Fehldetektionen und Verhinderung unerwünschter Gerätereaktionen (z. B. unangemessene Schockabgaben oder Wechsel in den Mode-Switch mit intermittierendem Verlust der atrioventrikulären Synchronie) durch Behebung der zugrunde liegenden Ursachen.

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The authors would like to thank Dejan Danilovic for editing of the manuscript.

Author information




Tobias Franz Götz performed evaluation of the IEGMs and wrote the manuscript; Jochen Proff helped with data analyses, verified analytic methods, and reviewed the manuscript; Tobias Timmel performed data analyses; Clemens Jilek and Klaus Tiemann verified analytic methods and reviewed the manuscript; Thorsten Lewalter designed the study together with Tobias Franz Götz, supervised the project and helped with evaluation of the IEGMs. All authors provided critical feedback and helped shape the research, analysis, and manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tobias Franz Götz MD.

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Conflict of interest

T. Lewalter received moderate speaker honoraria and advisory board fees from Biotronik. J. Proff and T. Timmel are employees of Biotronik. T.F. Götz, C. Jilek, and K. Tiemann declare that they have no competing interests.

For this article no studies with human participants or animals were performed by any of the authors. All studies performed were in accordance with the ethical standards indicated in each case.

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Götz, T.F., Proff, J., Timmel, T. et al. Potential of remote monitoring to prevent sensing and detection failures in implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Herzschr Elektrophys (2021).

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  • Home monitoring
  • Inadequate shock delivery
  • Intracardiac electrograms
  • Adverse device activity


  • Fernüberwachung
  • Inadäquate Schockabgabe
  • Intrakardiale Elektrogramme
  • Unerwünschte Geräteaktivität