Rheologica Acta

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 877–888 | Cite as

Instability of entangled polymers in cone and plate rheometry

Original Contribution

Abstract

Flow instability in three entangled polymer systems including a 10 wt% 1,4-polybutadiene (PBD) solution, an 11.4 wt% polyisobutylene (PIB) solution, and a long chain branched polyethylene melt (LD 146) was investigated in both stress-controlled and rate-controlled experiments in the cone–plate geometry. It was found that flow instability occurred for experiments in both rate- and stress-controlled modes. The effects of cone angle or rim gap and shearing time on flow instability were studied. The smaller cone angle and shorter shearing time delay (in terms of stress or shear rate) the occurrence of severe instability and mass loss of the PBD solution but not for the PIB. Our data are consistent with the dramatic shear rate jump for the flow curve constructed from the stress-controlled experiments being associated with mass loss after the severe instabilities. We also find that the Cox–Merz representation gives a powerful tool for investigation of flow instability. Finally, another interesting result in this work is that it seems that the stress overshoot can be related to the onset of flow instability in the present system.

Keywords

Flow instability Edge fracture Mass loss Stress controlled Rate controlled Stress overshoot Cox–Merz rule 

References

  1. Al-Hadithi TSR, Barnes HA, Walters K (1992) The relationship between the linear (oscillatory) and nonlinear (steady-state) flow properties of a series of polymer and colloidal systems. Colloid Polym Sci 270:40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer LA, Sanchez-Reyes J, Juliani J (2002) Relaxation dynamics of polymer liquids in nonlinear step strain. Macromolecules 35:10216–10224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bird RB, Armstrong RC, Hassager O (1977) Dynamics of polymeric liquids. Willey, New York, p 154Google Scholar
  4. Crawley RL, Graessley WW (1977) Geometry effects on stress transient data obtained by cone and plate flow. Trans Soc Rheol 21:19–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cox WP, Merz EH (1958) Correlation of dynamic and steady state flow viscosities. J Polym Sci 28:619–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ferri D, Lomellini P (1999) Melt rheology of randomly branched polystyrenes. J Rheol 43:1355–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferry JD (1980) Viscoelastic properties of polymers. Willey, New York, p 523Google Scholar
  8. Fukuda M, Osaki K, Kurata M (1975) Nonlinear viscoelasticity of polystyrene solutions I. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 13:1563–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gleissle W, Hoshestein B (2003) Validity of the Cox–Merz rule for concentrated suspensions. J Rheol 47:897–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Graessley WW (1974) The entanglement concept in polymer rheology. Adv Polym Sci 16:1–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Huilgol RR, Pinazza M, Payen LE (1993) On the rectangular flow of a second-order fluid and the role of second normal stress difference in edge fracture in rheometer. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 50:331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huilgol RR, Pinazza M, Payen LE (1994) Corrigenda. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 55:209–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hutton JF (1963) Fracture of liquids in shear. Nature 200:646–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hutton JF (1965) The fracture of liquids in shear: the effects of size and shape. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 287:222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutton JF (1969) Fracture and secondary flow of elastic liquids. Rheol Acta 8:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Inn YW, Wissbrun KF, Denn MM (2005) Effect of edge fracture on constant torque rheometry of entangled polymer solutions. Macromolecules 38:9385–9388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Keentok M, Xue S-C (1999) Edge fracture in cone–plate and parallel plate flows. Rheol Acta 38:321–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kocherov VL, Lukach YL, Sporyagin EA, Vinogradov GV (1973) Flow of polymer melts in a disc-type extruder and rotational devices of the ‘cone–plate’ and ‘parallel-plate’ type. Polym Eng Sci 13:194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kulicke WM, Porter RS (1979) Irregularities in steady flow for non-Newtonian fluids between cone and plate. J Appl Polym Sci 23:953–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kulicke WM, Porter RS (1980) Relation between steady shear flow and dynamic rheology. Rheol Acta 19:601–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kulicke WM, Wallbaum U (1985) Determination of first and second normal stress differences in polymer solutions in steady shear flow and limitations caused by flow irregularities. Chem Eng Sci 40:961–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kulicke WM, Jeberien HE, Kiss H, Porter RS (1979) Visual observation of flow irregularities in polymer solutions at theta-conditions. Rheol Acta 18:711–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Larson RG (1992) Instabilities in viscoelastic flows. Rheol Acta 31:213–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Larson RG, Khan SA, Raju VR (1988) Relaxation of stress and birefringence in polymers of high molecular weight. J Rheol 32:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee CS, Tripp BC, Magda JJ (1992) Does N 1 or N 2 control the onset of edge fracture. Rheol Acta 31:306–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Macosko CW (1994) Rheology: principles, measurements, and applications. VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Magda JJ, Larson RG (1988) A transition occurring in ideal elastic liquids during shear-flow. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 30:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marrucci G (1983) The free energy function of the Doi and Edwards theory: analysis of the instability in stress relaxation. J Rheol 27:433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marrucci G (1996) Dynamics of entanglements: a nonlinear model consistent with the Cox–Merz rule. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 62:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKinley GH, Byars JA, Brown RA, Armstrong RC (1991) Observations in elastic instability in cone–plate and parallel-plate flows of polyisobutylene Boger fluid. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 40:201–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McKinley GH, Oztekin A, Byars JA, Brown RA (1995) Self-similar spiral instabilities in elastic flows between a cone and plate. J Fluid Mech 285:123–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mead DW, Larson RG (1990) Rheooptical study of isotropic solutions of stiff polymers. Macromolecules 23:2524–2533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Menezes EV, Graessley WW (1982) Non-linear rheological behavior of polymer systems for several shear-flow histories. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 20:1817–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mhetar V, Archer LA (1999) Nonlinear viscoelasticity of entangled polymeric liquids. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 81:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Olagunju DO, Cook LP (1993) Linear stability analysis of cone-and-plate flow of an oldroyd-B fluid. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 47:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Osaki K, Fukuda M, Ohta S, Kim BS, Kurata M (1975) Nonlinear viscoelasticity of polystyrene solutions. II. Non-Newtonian viscosity. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 13:1577–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Osaki K, Inoue T, Isomura T (2000a) Stress overshoot of polymers at high rates of shear. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 38:1917–1925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Osaki K, Inoue T, Isomura T (2000b) Stress overshoot of polymers at high rates of shear: polystyrene with bimodal molecular weigh distribution. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 38:2043–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Osaki K, Inoue T, Uematsu T (2000c) Stress overshoot of polymers at high rates of shear: semidilute polystyrene solutions with and without chain entanglement. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 38:3271–3276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pattamaprom C, Larson RG (2001) Constraint release effects in monodiesperse and bidisperse polystyrenes in fast transient shearing flows. Macromolecules 34:5229–5237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pearson DS, Rochefort WE (1982) Behavior of concentrated polystyrene solutions in large-amplitude oscillating shear fields. J Polym Sci Polym Phys Ed 20:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pearson DS, Herbolzheimer E, Grizzuti N, Marrucci G (1991) Transient behavior of entangled polymers at high shear rates. J Polym Sci B Polym Pyhs Ed 29:1589–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Phan-Thien N (1985) Cone and plate flow of Oidroyd-B fluid is unstable. J Non-Newton Fluid Mech 17:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosen SL (1993) Fundamental principles of polymeric materials. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Sanchez-Reyes J, Islam MT, Archer LA (2002) Step shear dynamics of highly entangled polymer liquids. Macromolecules 35:5194–5202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sui C, McKenna GB, ANTEC 2006 (2006) Proceedings of the 64th Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition, Charlotte, NC. May 7–11. Soc Plast Eng, pp. 2351–2355Google Scholar
  47. Sui C, McKenna GB (2007) Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of branched polyethylene in reversing flows. J Rheol (in press)Google Scholar
  48. Tanner RI, Keentok M (1983) Shear fracture in cone–plate rheometry. J Rheol 27:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tapadia P, Wang S-Q (2003) Yieldlike constitutive transition in shear flow of entangled polymeric fluids. Phys Rev Lett 91:198301–198304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tapadia P, Wang S-Q (2004) Nonlinear flow behavior of entangled polymer solutions: yieldlike entanglement-disentanglement transition. Macromolecules 37:9083–9095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tapadia P, Wang S-Q (2006) Direct visualization of continuous simple shear in non-Newtonian polymeric fluids. Phys Rev Lett 96:016001–016004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Venerus DC, Ritesh N (2006) Stress relaxation dynamics of an entangled polystyrene solution following step strain flow. J Rheol 50:59–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang S-Q, Ravindranath S, Boukany PE, Olechnowicz M, Quirk RP, Halasa A, Mays J (2006) Non-quiescent relaxation in entangled polymeric liquids after step shear. Phys Rev Lett 97:187801–187804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wen YH, Lin HC, Li CH, Hua CC (2004) An experimental appraisal of the Cox–Merz rule and Laun’s rule based on bidisperse entangled polystyrene solutions. Polymer 45:8551–8559CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations