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Multivitamin/mineral supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a large prospective study using UK Biobank data

European Journal of Nutrition Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the widespread use of multivitamin/mineral supplements, the effects of multivitamin/mineral on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain inconclusive. We aimed to prospectively investigate how multivitamin/mineral use is associated with CVD.

Methods

This population-based cohort study included 465,278 men and women who participated in the UK Biobank and were free from CVD at baseline. Participants were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and followed-up until the end of 2018. Data on supplement use including multivitamin/mineral were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of CVD events in relation to multivitamin/mineral use.

Results

During the follow-up, we identified 25,772 cases of CVD events, 4754 cases of CVD mortality, 18,728 cases of coronary heart disease, 6726 cases of myocardial infarction, and 4561 cases of stroke. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with multivitamin/mineral use were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) for CVD events, 0.92 (0.86, 1.00) for CVD mortality, 0.96 (0.93, 0.99) for coronary heart disease, and 0.92 (0.86, 0.97) for myocardial infarction. Subgroup analysis suggested that multivitamin/mineral use was associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD events in participants aged < 60 years and in former and current smokers (P for interaction ≤ 0.01). Sensitivity analyses showed no substantial change in the results when we excluded participants who developed CVD events during the first 2 years of follow-up.

Conclusion

Multivitamin/mineral supplementation was associated with very modest reductions in CVD events. Age and smoking might modify these associations.

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Acknowledgements

We thank UK Biobank participants. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource (application No 52632).

Funding

This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82173648), Innovative Talent Support Plan of the Medical and Health Technology Project in Zhejiang Province (2021422878), Internal Fund of Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2020YJY0212), Ningbo Clinical Research Center for Digestive System Tumors (2019A21003), and Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen (SZSM201803080).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

LH and YZ: conceptualized the manuscript; BC, CZ, and LH: contributed to the literature search and interpretation, the statistical analysis, the writing of the paper, and refining of figures and tables; RZ and MW: conducted the data collection; LH and YZ had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis; and all authors: reviewed and revised the manuscript, read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yonghong Zhang or Liyuan Han.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

This study was performed under generic ethical approval obtained by UK Biobank investigators from the National Health Service National Research Ethics Service (Ref: 11/NW/0.0382) and all participants provided written informed consent. The current analyses were carried out under application number 52632.

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Che, B., Zhong, C., Zhang, R. et al. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a large prospective study using UK Biobank data. Eur J Nutr 61, 2909–2917 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-02865-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-02865-4

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