Association between coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with cognitive functioning: cross-sectional assessment in an elderly Mediterranean population

Abstract

Purpose

Coffee is rich in compounds such as polyphenols, caffeine, diterpenes, melanoidins and trigonelline, which can stimulate brain activity. Therefore, the possible association of coffee consumption with cognition is of considerable research interest. In this paper, we assess the association of coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with the risk of poor cognitive functioning in a population of elderly overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods

PREDIMED-plus study participants who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE) (n = 6427; mean age = 65 ± 5 years) or a battery of neuropsychological tests were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption or total dietary caffeine intake and cognitive impairment.

Results

Total coffee consumers and caffeinated coffee consumers had better cognitive functioning than non-consumers when measured by the MMSE and after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44–0.90 and OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38–0.83, respectively). Results were similar when cognitive performance was measured using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B). These associations were not observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption. Participants in the highest tertile of total dietary caffeine intake had lower odds of poor cognitive functioning than those in the reference tertile when screened by the MMSE (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47–0.87) or other neurophysiological tests evaluating a variety of cognitive domains (i.e., CDT and TMT-A).

Conclusions

Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were associated with better cognitive functioning as measured by various neuropsychological tests in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly individuals with MetS.

Trial registration

ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: July 24, 2014.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Availability of data and materials

There are restrictions on the availability of data for the PREDIMED-Plus trial, due to the signed consent agreements around data sharing, which only allow access to external researchers for studies following the project purposes. Requestors wishing to access the PREDIMED-Plus trial data used in this study can make a request to the PREDIMED-Plus trial Steering Committee chair: jordi.salas@urv.cat. The request will then be passed to members of the PREDIMED-Plus Steering Committee for deliberation.

References

  1. 1.

    Yates KF, Sweat V, Yau PL et al (2012) Impact of metabolic syndrome on cognition and brain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:2060–2067. https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.252759

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Atti AR, Valente S, Iodice A et al (2019) Metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 27:625–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2019.01.214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Solas M, Milagro FI, Ramírez MJ, Martínez JA (2017) Inflammation and gut-brain axis link obesity to cognitive dysfunction: plausible pharmacological interventions. Curr Opin Pharmacol 37:87–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2017.10.005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    WHO (2019) Risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia: WHO guidelines

  5. 5.

    Singh B, Parsaik AK, Mielke MM et al (2014) Association of Mediterranean diet with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Alzheimer Dis 39:271–282. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-130830

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Berendsen AAM, Kang JH, van de Rest O et al (2017) The dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, cognitive function, and cognitive decline in American older women. J Am Med Dir Assoc 18:427–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.11.026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Jarvis MJ (1993) Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology 110:45–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02246949

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Konishi Y, Hori H, Ide K et al (2018) Effect of single caffeine intake on neuropsychological functions in healthy volunteers: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. PLoS One 13:e0202247. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Driscoll I, Shumaker SA, Snively BM et al (2016) Relationships between caffeine intake and risk for probable dementia or global cognitive impairment: the women’s health initiative memory study. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 71:1596–1602. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw078

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Cao C, Wang L, Lin X et al (2011) Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer’s mice. J Alzheimer Dis 25:323–335. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2011-110110

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Chu Y, Chang W, Black R et al (2012) Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid β(1–42) levels in an Alzheimer’s mouse model. Food Chem 135:2095–2102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Basurto-Islas G, Blanchard J, Tung YC et al (2014) Therapeutic benefits of a component of coffee in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 35:2701–2712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.06.012

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wu L, Sun D, He Y (2017) Coffee intake and the incident risk of cognitive disorders: a dose-response meta-analysis of nine prospective cohort studies. Clin Nutr 36:730–736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.05.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Santos C, Costa J, Santos J et al (2010) Caffeine intake and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimer Dis 20:S187–S204. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-091387

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Dong X, Li S, Sun J et al (2020) Association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake from coffee with cognitive performance in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. Nutrients 12:840. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030840

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Alberti K, Eckel R, Grundy S et al (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; World heart federation; International. Circulation 120:1640–1645. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Martínez-González M, Buil-Cosiales P, Corella D et al (2019) Cohort profile: design and methods of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized trial. Int J Epidemiol 48:387–388o. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mataix Verdú J (2003) Tabla de composicion de alimentos. [Food Composition Tables]. Granada, Spain

  19. 19.

    Moreiras O, Carvajal A, Cabrera L, Cuadrado C (2005) Tablas de composición de alimentos” Food Composition Tables” Pirámide. Madrid, Spain

  20. 20.

    Zucconi S, Volpato C, Adinolfi F et al (2013) Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks. EFSA Support Publ 10:190. https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2013.EN-394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Blesa R, Pujol M, Aguilar M et al (2001) Clinical validity of the ‘mini-mental state’ for Spanish speaking communities. Neuropsychologia 39:1150–1157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(01)00055-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Benton AL, Hamsher KD, Sivan AB (1994) Multilingual Aphasia Examination: Manual of Instructions, 3rd edition. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates

  24. 24.

    TEA SA (1999) WAIS-III: Escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para Adultos. [WAIS-III: Wechsler adult Intelligence scale. Third version]

  25. 25.

    Llinàs-Reglà J, Vilalta-Franch J, López-Pousa S et al (2017) The trail making test: association with other neuropsychological measures and normative values for adults aged 55 years and older from a Spanish-speaking population-based sample. Assessment 24:183–196. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191115602552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Aprahamian I, Martinelli J, Neri Liberalesso A, Sanches Yassuda M (2009) The Clock Drawing Test a review of its accuracy in screening for dementia. Dement Neuropsychol 3:74–80. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642009DN30200002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Paganini-Hill A, Clark L (2011) Longitudinal assessment of cognitive function by clock drawing in older adults. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 1:75–83. https://doi.org/10.1159/000326781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    del Ser QT, García de Yébenes M, Sánchez Sánchez F et al (2004) Cognitive assessment in the elderly. Normative data of a Spanish population sample older than 70 years. Med Clin (Barc) 122:727–740. https://doi.org/10.1157/13062190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Elosua R, Marrugat J, Molina L et al (1994) Validation of the Minnesota leisure time physical activity questionnaire in Spanish men. Am J Epidemiol 139:1197–1209. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116966

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Elosua R, Garcia M, Aguilar A et al (2000) Validation of the Minnesota leisure time physical activity questionnaire in Spanish women. Med Sci Sport Exerc 32:1431–1437. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200008000-00011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Salas-Salvadó J, Díaz-López A, Ruiz-Canela M et al (2018) Effect of a lifestyle intervention program with energy-restricted Mediterranean diet and exercise on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: one-year results of the PREDIMED-Plus Trial. Diabetes Care 42:dc180836. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-0836

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Schröder H, Fitó M, Estruch R et al (2011) A short screener is valid for assessing mediterranean diet adherence among older Spanish men and women. J Nutr 141:1140–1145. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.110.135566

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Sanz J, Perdigón AL, Vázquez C (2003) Adaptación española del Inventario para la Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II): 2. Propiedades psicométricas en población general. Clínica y Salud [en linea] 14:249–280

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Nissensohn M, Sánchez-Villegas A, Ortega RM et al (2016) Beverage consumption habits and association with total water and energy intakes in the Spanish population: findings of the ANIBES study. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Ferreira-Pêgo C, Babio N, Fenández-Alvira JM et al (2014) Fluid intake from beverages in Spanish adults; cross-sectional study. Nutr Hosp 29:1171–1178. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2014.29.5.7421

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Paz Graniel I, Babio N, Serra Majem L et al (2019) Fluid and total water intake in a senior mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk: demographic and lifestyle determinants in the PREDIMED-Plus study. Eur J Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02015-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Ros E, Hu FB (2013) Consumption of plant seeds and cardiovascular health. Circulation 128:553–565. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Godos J, Pluchinotta FR, Marventano S et al (2014) Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 65:925–936. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2014.940287

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Butt MS, Tauseef Sultan M (2011) Critical reviews in food science and nutrition coffee and its consumption: benefits and risks. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:363–373. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390903586412

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Navarro AM, Martinez-Gonzalez MÁ, Gea A et al (2018) Coffee consumption and total mortality in a Mediterranean prospective cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 108:1113–1120. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Fortunato Araújo L, Giatti L, Padilha dos Reis RC et al (2015) Inconsistency of association between coffee consumption and cognitive function in adults and elderly in a cross-sectional study (ELSA-Brasil). Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7115487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Jackson NHH (2015) The effects of coffee consumption on cognition and dementia diseases. J Gerontol Geriatr Res. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-7182.1000233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Fisone G, Borgkvist A, Usiello A (2004) Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action. Cell Mol Life Sci 61:857–872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-003-3269-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Johnson-Kozlow M, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E, D. M, (2002) Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. Am J Epidemiol 156:842–850. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Camfield DA, Silber BY, Scholey AB et al (2013) A randomised placebo-controlled trial to differentiate the acute cognitive and mood effects of chlorogenic acid from decaffeinated coffee. PLoS One 8:e82897. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082897

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Haskell-Ramsay C, Jackson P, Forster J et al (2018) The acute effects of caffeinated black coffee on cognition and mood in healthy young and older adults. Nutrients 10:1386. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101386

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Mancini RS, Wang Y, Weaver DF (2018) Phenylindanes in brewed coffee inhibit amyloid-beta and tau aggregation. Front Neurosci. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00735

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Colombo R, Papetti A (2020) An outlook on the role of decaffeinated coffee in neurodegenerative diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 60:760–779. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1550384

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Castelli V, Grassi D, Bocale R et al (2018) Diet and brain health: which role for polyphenols? Curr Pharm Des 24:227–238. https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612824666171213100449

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Sian J, Dextert D, Lees A et al (1994) Alterations in glutathione levels in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders affecting basal ganglia. Ann Neurol 36:348–355. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410360305

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Ihab H, Hayek SS, Goldstein FC et al (2018) Oxidative stress predicts cognitive decline with aging in healthy adults: an observational study. J Neuroinflamm. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-1026-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Kromhout MA, Ottenheim NR, Giltay E et al (2019) Caffeine and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Exp Gerontol 122:85–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.04.017

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would especially like to thank the PREDIMED-Plus participants for their enthusiastic collaboration, the PREDIMED-Plus personnel for their outstanding support and staff of all associated primary care centers for their exceptional work. CIBEROBN, CIBERESP and CIBERDEM are initiatives of the Carlos III Health Institute, Spain. We also thank the PREDIMED-Plus Biobank Network, which is part of the National Biobank Platform of the Carlos III Health Institute for storing and managing the biological samples. List of PREDIMED-Plus study investigators: Steering Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó (Coordinator), M.A. Martínez-González, M. Fitó. E. Ros, FJ. Tinahones, D. Corella and R. Estruch. Executive Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó, M.A. Martínez-González, D. Corella, M. Fitó, J. Vioque, D. Romaguera, J.A Martínez, J. Wärnberg, J. Lopez-Miranda, R. Estruch, A. Bueno-Cavanillas, Á.M. Alonso-Gómez, J.A. Tur, FJ. Tinahones, L. Serra-Majem, V. Martin, J. Lapetra, C. Vázquez, X. Pinto, J. Vidal, L. Daimiel, M. Delgado-Rodríguez, M.A. Rubio and E. Ros. Dietary and Lifestyle Intervention Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó (chair), M.A. Martínez-González, M. Fitó and R. Estruch; Dietary Intervention: J. Salas-Salvadó (chair), N. Babio, E. Ros, A. Sánchez-Tainta; Physical Exercise: M. Fitó (chair), H. Schröder, A. Marcos, D. Corella, J. Warnberg; Behavioral support: R. Estruch (chair), F. Fernández-Aranda, C. Botella and J. Salas-Salvadó. Clinical Event Ascertainment Committee: F. Arós (Chair), M. Aldamiz, A. Alonso-Gómez, L. Forga, A. García-Layana, J. Portu, J. Timiraos, A. González-Pinto, I. Zorrilla, M. Martínez-Kareaga, P. Seoane. Chair: Dr. Fernando Arós. Cardiology: Dr. Angel Alonso-Gómez; Dr. Fernando Arós. Neurology: Dr. Juan Timiraos. Internal Medicine: Dr. Mikel Aldamiz; Dr. Joseba Portu. Endocrinology: Dr. Lluis Forga. Ophthalmology: Dr. Alfredo García-Layana. Psychiatry: Dr. Ana González Pinto; Dr. Iñaki Zorrilla. Oncology: Dr. Mireia Martínez; Dr. Patricia Seoane. Independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board: M.J. Stampfer (Harvard School of Public Health), J. Sabate (Loma Linda University), A. Astrup (Copenhagen University), F. Fernandez-Aviles (Universidad Complutense of Madrid), X. Pi-Sunyer (Columbia University). Rovira i Virgili University, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Human Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Pere Virgili Institute for Health Research, Reus, Spain: R. Pedret Llaberia, R. Gonzalez, R. Sagarra Álamo, F. París Palleja, J. Balsells, J.M. Roca, T. Basora Gallisa, J. Vizcaino, P. Llobet Alpizarte, C. Anguera Perpiñá, M. Llauradó Vernet, C. Caballero, M. Garcia Barco, M.D. Morán Martínez, J. García Rosselló, A. Del Pozo, C. PobletCalaf, P. Arcelin Zabal, X. Floresví, M. Ciutat Benet, A. Palau Galindo, J.J. Cabré Vila, F. Dolz Andrés, M. Soler, M. Gracia Vidal, J. Vilalta J. Boj Casajuana, M. Ricard, F. Saiz, A. Isach, M. Sanchez Marin Martinez, E. Granado Font, C, Lucena Luque, C. Mestres Sola, N. Babio, N. Becerra-Tomás, G. Mestres, J. Basora, G. Mena-Sánchez, L. Barrubés Piñol, M. Gil Segura, N. Rosique-Esteban, S. Chig, I. Abellán Cano, V. Ruiz García, C. Gomez-Martinez, L. Lopez-Gonzalez, A. Salas-Huetos, I. Paz-Graniel, J. Roig Vallverdú, C. Claudia Miñana Garcia, L. Sánchez Niembro, P. Hernandez-Alonso, S. Canudas, A. Díaz-López. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra-Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Pamplona, Spain: M. Ruiz-Canela, E. Toledo, P. Buil-Cosiales, Z. Vázquez, C. Razquin, M. Bes-Rastrollo, A. Gea, A. Sanchez Tainta, B. SanJulian Aranguren, E. Goñi, L. Goñi, M.J. Cobo, A. Rico-Campa, F.J. Basterra Gortari, A. Garcia Arellano, J. Diez-Espino, O. Lecea-Juarez, J. Carlos Cenoz-Osinaga, I. Alvarez-Alvarez, M.C. Sayon-Orea, C.I. Fernandez-Lázaro, L. Ruiz-Estigarribia, J. Bartolome-Resano, A. Sola-Larraza (†), E. Lozano-Oloriz, B. Cano-Valles, S. Eguaras, E. Pascual Roquet-Jalmar, I. Galilea-Zabalza, H. Lancova, R. Ramallal, M.L. Garcia-Perez, V. Estremera-Urabayen, M.J. Ariz-Arnedo, C. Hijos-Larraz, C. Fernandez-Alfaro, B. Iñigo-Martinez, R. Villanueva Moreno, S. Martin-Almendros, L. Barandiaran-Bengoetxea, C. Fuertes-Goñi, A. Lezaun-Indurain, M.J. Guruchaga-Arcelus, O. Olmedo-Cruz, L. Escriche-Erviti, R. Ansorena-Ros, R. Sanmatin-Zabaleta, J. Apalategi-Lasa, J. Villanueva-Telleria, M.M. Hernández-Espinosa, L. Herrera-Valdez, L. Dorronsoro-Dorronsoro, Lourdes Echeverria-Lizarraga (†), J.A. Cabeza-Beunza, P. Fernández-Urretavizcaya, P. Gascó-García, C. Royo-Jimenez, J. Moran-Pí, F. Salazar-Fernández, F.J. Chasco-Ros, F. Cortés-Ugalde, J.J. Jurio-Burgui, P. Pascual-Pascual, A.I. Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, M. Esparza-Cáceres, C. Arroyo-Azpa, M. Rodríguez-Sanz de Galdeano, T.Forcen-Alonso, M. Armendariz-Marcotegui, A. Brugos-Larumbe, A. Arillo, B. López-Aisa. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, University Jaume I, Conselleria de Sanitat de la Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, Spain: J.I. González, J.V. Sorlí, O. Portolés, R. Fernández-Carrión, C. Ortega-Azorín, R. Barragán, E.M. Asensio, O. Coltell, R. Martínez-Lacruz, I. Giménez‐Alba, C. Sáiz, R. Osma, E. Férriz, I. González-Monje, P. Guillém-Sáiz, F. Giménez-Fernández, L. Quiles, P. Carrasco, A. Carratalá-Calvo, C. Valero-Barceló, C. Mir, S. Sánchez-Navarro, J. Navas, I. González-Gallego, L. Bort-Llorca, L. Pérez-Ollero, M. Giner-Valero, R. Monfort-Sáez, J. Nadal-Sayol, V. Pascual-Fuster, M. Martínez-Pérez, C. Riera, M.V. Belda, A. Medina, E. Miralles, M.J. Ramírez-Esplugues, M. Rojo-Furió, G. Mattingley, M.A. Delgado, M.A. Pages, Y Riofrío, L. Abuomar, N. Blasco-Lafarga, R. Tosca, L. Lizán, A.M Valcarce, M.D. Medina, S. de Valcárcel, N. Tormo, O. Felipe-Román, S. Lafuente, E.I. Navío, G. Aldana, J.V. Crespo, J.L. Llosa, L. González-García, R. Raga-Marí. Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Endocrinology Service, Neurosciences Programme, Clinical Research Unit at the Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona. Medicine Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain: M. Fitó, O. Castañer, M.A. Muñoz, M.D. Zomeño, A. Hernaéz, L. Torres, M. Quifer, R. Llimona, G Freixer, KA. Pérez-Vega, M. Farràs, R. Elosua, J. Vila, I. Subirana, S. Pérez, A. Goday, J.J. Chillaron Jordan, J.A. Flores Lerroux, D. Benaiges Boix, G. Llauradó, M. Farré, E. Menoyo, A. Aldea-Perona, M. Pérez-Otero, D. Muñoz-Aguayo, S. Gaixas, G. Blanchart, A. Sanllorente, M. Soria, J. Valussi, A. Cuenca, L. Forcano, A. Pastor, A. Boronat, S. Tello, M. Cabañero, L. Franco, H. Schröder, R. De la Torre, C. Medrano, J. Bayó, M.T. García, V. Robledo, P. Babi, E. Canals, N. Soldevila, L. Carrés, C. Roca, M.S. Comas, G. Gasulla, X. Herraiz, A. Martínez, E. Vinyoles, J.M. Verdú, M. Masague Aguade, E. Baltasar Massip, M. López Grau, M. Mengual, V. Moldon, M. Vila Vergaz, R. Cabanes Gómez, Ciurana, M. Gili Riu, A. Palomeras Vidal, F Peñas F, A Raya, M.A. Sebastian, M. Valls, J. Guerrero, M. Marne, E. Minguella, M. Montenegro, A. Sala, M.R. Senan, N. Talens, N. Vera. Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Miguel Hernandez University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, Alicante, Spain: J. Vioque, M. García-de-la-Hera, E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz, S. Gonzalez-Palacios, L. Torres-Collado, L. Compañ-Gabucio, A. Oncina-Canovas, L. Notario-Barandiaran, D. Orozco-Beltran, S. Pertusa Martínez, A. Asensio, I. Candela-García, J.M. Zazo, C. Gisbert Sellés, N.Fernándis-Brufal, J. Román Maciá, C. Sánchez Botella, M. García Muñoz, C. Barceló, M.C. Altozano-Rodado, N.Iranzo García, M.C. Martínez Vergara, M.A.Sempere Pascual, S.J. Miralles Gisbert, A. González Botella, C.M. López García, R. Valls Enguix, N. Gómez Bellvert, I. López Aguilera, R.LloretMacián, A. Pastor Morell, E. Alonso Bartolomé, J.J. Ballester Baixauli, M.T. Cano Sánchez, B.E.Ayús Rojo, E.P. Cases Pérez, C. Tercero Maciá, L.A. Mira Castejón, I.A. García García, M. Jordá Ballesta, C. Pastor Polo, E. Puig Agulló. Hospital Son Espases (HUSE) and Institute for Health Research Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain: M. Fiol, M. Moñino, A. Colom, J. Konieczna, M. Morey, R. Zamanillo, A.M. Galmés-Panadés, V. Pereira, M.A. Martín, A. Yáñez, J. Llobera, J. Ripoll, R. Prieto, F. Grases, A. Costa, C. Fernández-Palomeque, E. Fortuny, M. Noris, S. Munuera, F. Tomás, F. Fiol, A. Jover, J.M. Janer, C. Vallespir, I. Mattei, N. Feuerbach, M. del Mar Sureda, S. Vega, L. Quintana, A. Fiol, M. Amador, S. González, J. Coll, A. Moyá, T. Piqué Sistac, M.D. Sanmartín Fernández, M.C. Piña Valls, M.A. Llorente San Martín, J. PouBordoy. Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain: I. Abete, I. Cantero, C. Cristobo, I. Ibero-Baraibar, M. Zulet, J. Ágreda-Peiró, M.D. Lezáun-Burgui, N. Goñi-Ruiz, R. Bartolomé-Resano, E. Cano-Cáceres, T. Elcarte-López, E. Echarte-Osacain, B. Pérez-Sanz, I. Blanco-Platero, A. Andueza- Azcárate, A. Gimeno-Aznar, E. Ursúa-Sesma, B. Ojeda-Bilbao, J. Martinez-Jarauta, L. Ugalde-Sarasa, B. Rípodas-Echarte, M.V. Güeto-Rubio, C. Napal-Lecumberri, MD Martínez-Mazo, E Arina-Vergara, A. Parra-Osés, F. Artal-Moneva, F. Bárcena-Amigo, F. Calle-Irastoza, J. Abad-Vicente, J.I. Armendáriz-Artola, P. Iñigo-Cibrian, J. Escribano-Jarauta, J. Ulibarri-delportillo, B. Churio-Beraza, Y. Monzón-Martínez, E. Madoz-Zubillaga, C. Arroniz. University of Málaga and Institute of Biomedical Research in Malaga (IBIMA), Málaga, Spain: F.J. Barón-López, J.C. Fernández García, N. Pérez-Farinós, N. Moreno-Morales, M. del C. Rodríguez-Martínez, J. Pérez-López, J.C. Benavente-Marín, E. Crespo Oliva, E. Contreras Fernández, F.J. Carmona González, R. Carabaño Moral, S. Torres Moreno, M.V. Martín Ruíz, M. Alcalá Cornide, V. Fuentes Gómez. Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain: J. López-Miranda, A. Garcia-Rios, J. Criado García, A.I. Jiménez Morales, A. Ortiz Morales, J.D. Torres Peña, F.J. Gómez Delgado, J.F. Alcalá, A. León Acuña, A.P. Arenas Larriva, F. Rodríguez Cantalejo, J. Caballero Villaraso, I. Nieto Eugenio, P. Coronado Carvajal, M.C del Campo Molina, P.J. Peña Orihuela, I. Perez Corral, G. Quintana Navarro. Department of Internal Medicine, Institutd’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain: R. Casas, M. Domenech, C. Viñas, S. Castro-Barquero, A.M. Ruiz-León, R. Losno, L. Tarés, A. Jordán, R. Soriano, M. Camafort, C. Sierra, E. Sacanella, A. Sala-Vila, J. M. Cots, I. Sarroca, M. García, N. Bermúdez, A. Pérez, I. Duaso, A. de la Arada, R. Hernández, C. Simón, M.A. de la Poza, I. Gil, M. Vila, C. Iglesias, N. Assens, M. Amatller, LL. Rams, T. Benet, G. Fernández, J. Teruel, A. Azorin, M. Cubells, D. López, J.M. Llovet, M.L. Gómez, P. Climente, L. de Paula, J. Soto, C. Carbonell, C. Llor, X. Abat, A. Cama, M. Fortuny, C. Domingo, A. I. Liberal, T. Martínez, E. Yañez, M. J. Nieto, A. Pérez, E. Lloret, C. Carrazoni, A. M. Belles, C. Olmos, M. Ramentol, M. J. Capell, R. Casas, I. Giner, A. Muñoz, R. Martín, E. Moron, A. Bonillo, G. Sánchez, C. Calbó, J. Pous, M. Massip, Y. García, M.C. Massagué, R. Ibañez, J. Llaona, T. Vidal, N. Vizcay, E. Segura, C. Galindo, M. Moreno, M. Caubet, J. Altirriba, G. Fluxà, P. Toribio, E. Torrent, J. J. Anton, A. Viaplana, G. Vieytes, N. Duch, A. Pereira, M. A. Moreno, A. Pérez, E. Sant, J. Gené, H. Calvillo, F. Pont, M. Puig, M. Casasayas, A. Garrich, E. Senar, A. Martínez, I. Boix, E. Sequeira, V. Aragunde, S. Riera, M. Salgado, M. Fuentes, E. Martín, A. Ubieto, F. Pallarés, C. Sala, A. Abilla, S. Moreno, E. Mayor, T. Colom, A. Gaspar, A. Gómez, L. Palacios, R. Garrigosa. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain: L. García Molina, B. Riquelme Gallego, N. Cano Ibañez, A. Maldonado Calvo, A. López Maldonado, E.M. Garrido, A. Baena Dominguez, F. García Jiménez, E. Thomas Carazo, A. Jesús Turnes González, F. González Jiménez, F. Padilla Ruiz, J. Machado Santiago, M.D. Martínez Bellón, A. Pueyos Sánchez, L. Arribas Mir, R. Rodríguez Tapioles, F. Dorador Atienza, L. Baena Camus, C. Osorio Martos, D. Rueda Lozano, M. López Alcázar, F. Ramos Díaz, M. Cruz Rosales Sierra, P. Alguacil Cubero, A. López Rodriguez, F. Guerrero García, J. Tormo Molina, F. Ruiz Rodríguez. Bioaraba Health Research Institute, Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Metabolic Area; Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital; University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain: I. Salaverria, A. Alonso-Gómez, M.C. Belló, L. Tojal, L. Goicolea, C. Sorto, A Goikoetxea, A. Casi Casanellas, M.L. Arnal Otero, J. Ortueta Martínez De Arbulo, J. Vinagre Morgado, J. Romeo Ollora, J. Urraca, M.I. Sarriegui Carrera, F.J. Toribio, E. Magán, A. Rodríguez, S. Castro Madrid, M.T. Gómez Merino, M. Rodríguez Jiménez, M. Gutiérrez Jodra, B. López Alonso, J. Iturralde Iriso, C. Pascual Romero, A. Izquierdo De La Guerra. Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain: M. Abbate, E. Angullo, E. Argelich, M.M. Bibiloni, C. Bouzas, X. Capó, S. Carreres, L. Gallardo, J.M. Gámez, B. García, C. García, A. Julibert, C. Gómez, I. Llompart, A. Martorell, C.M. Mascaró, D. Mateos, M, Monserrat, S. Montemayor, A. Pons, A. Pouso, J. Ramos, V. Ramos, T. Ripoll, T. Rodríguez, L. Sanz, A. Sureda, S. Tejada, L. Ugarriza. Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain: M.R. Bernal López, M. Macías González, J. Ruiz Nava, J.C. Fernández García, A. Muñoz Garach, A. Vilches Pérez, A. González Banderas, A.V. Alarcón-Martín, M. García Ruiz de Mier, J. Alcaide Torres, A. Vargas Candela, M. León Fernández, R. Hernández Robles, S. Santamaría Fernández, J.M. Marín. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain: J. Álvarez-Pérez, E.M. Díaz Benítez, F. Díaz-Collado, A. Sánchez-Villegas, J. Pérez-Cabrera, L.T. Casañas-Quintana, R.B. García-Guerra, I. Bautista-Castaño, C. Ruano-Rodríguez, F. Sarmiento de la Fe, J.A. García-Pastor, B. Macías-Gutiérrez, I. Falcón-Sanabria, C. Simón-García, A.J. Santana-Santana, J.B. Álvarez-Álvarez, B.V. Díaz-González, J.M. Castillo Anzalas, R.E. Sosa-Also, J. Medina-Ponce. Biomedicine Institute (IBIOMED); University of León, and Primary Health Care Management of León (Sacyl), León, Spain: Biomedicine Institute (IBIOMED); University of León, and Primary Health Care Management of León (Sacyl), León, Spain: S. Abajo Olea, L. Álvarez-Álvarez, M. Rubín García, A. Torres, P. Farias, N. Cubelos, A. AdlbiSibai, M. Ajenjo, E. CarriedoUle, M. Escobar Fernández, J.I. Ferradal García, J.P. Fernández Vázquez, C. González Quintana, F. González Rivero, M. Lavinia Popescu, J.I. López Gil, J. López de la Iglesia, A. Marcos Delgado, C. Merino Acevedo, S. Reguero Celada, M. Rodríguez Bul, E. Fernández Mielgo. Department of Family Medicine, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain: J.M. Santos-Lozano, L. Miró-Moriano, C. Domínguez-Espinaco, S. Vaquero-Díaz, F.J. García-Corte, A. Santos-Calonge, C. Toro-Cortés, N. Pelegrina-López, V. Urbano-Fernández, M. Ortega-Calvo, J. Lozano-Rodríguez, I. Rivera-Benítez, M. Caballero-Valderrama, P. Iglesias-Bonilla, P. Román-Torres, Y. Corchado-Albalat, L. Mellado-Martín. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Fundación Jimenez Díaz. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas IISFJD. University Autonoma, Madrid, Spain: A.I. de Cos, S. Gutierrez, S. Artola, A. Galdon, I. Gonzalo. Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain: X. Pintó, A. Galera, M. Gimenez-Gracia, E. de la Cruz, R. Figueras, M. Poch, R. Freixedas, F. Trias, I. Sarasa, M. Fanlo-Maresma, H. Lafuente, M. Liceran, A. Rodriguez-Sanchez, C. Pallarols, E. Gómez-Sanchez, V. Esteve-Luque, J. Monedero, X. Corbella, E. Corbella. Department of Endocrinology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain: A. Altés, I. Vinagre, C. Mestre, J. Viaplana, M. Serra, J. Vera, T. Freitas, E. Ortega, I. Pla, R. Olbeyra. Nutritional Control of the Epigenome Group. Precision Nutrition and Obesity Program, Institute IMDEA-Food, CEI UAM+CSIC, Madrid, Spain: J.M. Ordovás, V. Micó, L. Berninches, L. Díez, M.J. Concejo, J. Muñoz, M. Adrián, Y. de la Fuente, C. Albertos, M.L. Cornejo, C. Cuesta. A. Montero., J. Aroca. Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain: J.J. Gaforio, S. Moraleda, N. Liétor, J.I. Peis, T. Ureña, M. Rueda, M.I. Ballesta. Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid, España (Spain para internacionales: C. Moreno Lopera, C. Aragoneses Isabel, M.A. Sirur Flores, M. Ceballos de Diego, T. Bescos Cáceres, Y. Peña Cereceda, M. Martínez Abad, R. Cabrera Vélez, M. González Cerrajero, M.A. Rubio Herrera, M. Torrego Ellacuría, A. Barabash Bustelo, M. Ortiz Ramos, A. Larrad Sainz. Department of Basic and Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain: R. Baños, A. García-Palacios. Oxidative Pathology Unit. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine-INCLIVA, Service of Clinical Analyses, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain. University of Valencia, Valencia Spain: G. Sáez Tormo (Sáez GT), N. Estañ-Capell, A. Iradi Casal, L. Monzó Beltrán, C. Bañuls Morant, E. Alonso Iglesias, D. Acevedo León, A. Hernando Espinilla, A. Mora Herranz, S. Alcover Sáez, J. A. Sánchez Herrero, J. Ventura Gayete, JM. López Ortega, ML Santaolaria Ayora, A. Carbonell Moncho, S. Mayo de Andrés. Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain: J. Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, M. Gutiérrez Bedmar, A. García Rodriguez, A. Mariscal Larrubia, M. Carnero Varo, C. Muñoz Bravo. Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain: F. Fernández-Aranda, S. Jiménez-Murcia, N. Mallorqui-Bagué, R. Granero, Z. Agüera, M. Lozano-Madrid.

Funding

The PREDIMED-Plus trial was supported by the Spanish government’s official funding agency for biomedical research, ISCIII, through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS) and co-funded by European Union ERDF/ESF, “A way to make Europe”/ “Investing in your future” (five coordinated FIS projects led by JS-S and JVid, including the following projects: PI13/00673, PI13/00492, PI13/00272, PI13/01123, PI13/00462, PI13/00233, PI13/02184, PI13/00728, PI13/01090, PI13/01056, PI14/01722, PI14/00636, PI14/00618, PI14/00696, PI14/01206, PI14/01919, PI14/00853, PI14/01374, PI14/00972, PI14/00728, PI14/01471, PI16/00473, PI16/00662, PI16/01873, PI16/01094, PI16/00501, PI16/00533, PI16/00381, PI16/00366, PI16/01522, PI16/01120, PI17/00764, PI17/01183, PI17/00855, PI17/01347, PI17/00525, PI17/01827, PI17/00532, PI17/00215, PI17/01441, PI17/00508, PI17/01732, PI17/00926, PI19/00957, PI19/00386, PI19/00309, PI19/01032, PI19/00576, PI19/00017, PI19/01226, PI19/00781, PI19/01560 and PI19/01332), the Special Action Project entitled: Implementación y evaluación de una intervención intensiva sobre la actividad física Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant to JS-S, the European Research Council (Advanced Research Grant 2013–2018, 340918) to MÁM-G, the Recercaixa Grant to JS-S (2013ACUP00194), grants from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI0458/2013, PS0358/2016 and PI0137/2018), a grant from the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/017), a SEMERGEN grant, and funds from the European Regional Development Fund (CB06/03). This research was also partially funded by EU-H2020 Grant (EAT2BENICE/H2020-SFS-2016–2; Ref 728018). Study resulting from the SLT006/17/00246 grant was funded by the Department of Health of the Generalitat de Catalunya by the call “Acció instrumental de programes de recerca orientats en l'àmbit de la recerca i la innovació en salut.” We thank CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya for institutional support. This work is partially supported by ICREA under the ICREA Academia program. IP-G receives a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (FPU 17/01925). L.C.-B. is the recipient of a predoctoral fellowship from the Generalitat de Catalunya's Department of Universities (FI-DGR 2017). NB-T is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship (Juan de la Cierva-Formación, FJC2018-036016-I) MRBL was supported by “Miguel Servet Type I” program (CP15/00028) from the ISCIII-Madrid (Spain), cofinanced by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional-FEDER.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Contributions

NB and JS-S contributed to study concept and design. IP-G, NB and JS-S performed statistical analyses. IP-G, NB, NB-T, LC-B and JS-S drafted the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content and approved the final version to be published.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Nancy Babio or Jordi Salas-Salvadó.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

JS-S serves on the board of (and receives grant support through his institution from) the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council and the Eroski Foundation. He also serves on the Executive Committee of the Instituto Danone, Spain, and on the Scientific Committee of the Danone International Institute. He has received research support from the Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, Spain, and Borges S.A., Spain. He receives consulting fees or travel expenses from Danone, the Eroski Foundation, the Instituto Danone, Spain, and Abbot Laboratories. ER has received research funding through his institution from the California Walnut Commission, Folsom, CA, USA; was a paid member of its Health Research Advisory Group; and is a nonpaid member of its Scientific Advisory Council.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethical standards

All participants provided their written informed consent. The study protocol and procedures were approved in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Additional information

A complete list of PREDIMED-Plus investigators is included as an acknowledgements.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 37 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Paz-Graniel, I., Babio, N., Becerra-Tomás, N. et al. Association between coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with cognitive functioning: cross-sectional assessment in an elderly Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02415-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cognitive impairment
  • Mini-Mental State Examination
  • Coffee
  • Caffeine
  • PREDIMED-plus