The aim was to analyze the intake of whole grain (WG) and associations with lifestyle and demographics in a newly established cohort of Danish adults.
Between 2015 and 2019, Danes were enrolled into The Diet, Cancer and Health—Next Generations cohort. A total of 38,553 persons were included in the current cross-sectional study, where all completed a 376-item food frequency questionnaire, a lifestyle questionnaire, and a physical examination in a study center where physical measurements and biological samples were collected.
The median intake of WG was 79 g/10 mega joule (MJ) and 54% of the participants consumed the amount of WG recommended in Denmark, which is 75 g/10 MJ. The probability of consuming the recommended amount of WG was highest among men, persons < 30 years, students, persons with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, persons participating in sports, who did not exceed the recommended maximum intake of alcohol and did not smoke. The probability of having a low intake of WG defined as < 25 g/10 MJ was highest among persons with short education, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, persons not participating in sports, persons having an alcohol intake above the recommended maximum level and persons being active smokers.
The median intake of WG was 79 g/10 MJ. The probability of consuming at least 75 g WG/10 MJ was highest among persons who also adhered to healthy lifestyle measured by other factors. Only 6% of the cohort participants consumed < 25 g WG/10 MJ, these persons were more likely to have a general less healthy lifestyle.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
McRae MP (2017) Health benefits of dietary whole grains: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. J Chiropr Med 16(1):10–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2016.08.008
Aune D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, Fadnes LT, Boffetta P, Greenwood DC, Tonstad S, Vatten LJ, Riboli E, Norat T (2016) Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 353:i2716. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2716
Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ (2013) Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Epidemiol 28(11):845–858. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-013-9852-5
Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T (2011) Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 343:d6617. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d6617
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2018) Continous Update Project Expert Report 2018. Diet, nutrition, physical activity and colorectal cancer. www.dietandcancerreport.org. Accesed 9 July 2019
DTU FOOD—The National Food Institute (Denmark) (2008) Fuldkorn—Definition og vidensgrundlag for anbefaling af fuldkornsindtag i Danmark [Wholegrain—Definition and scientific background for recommendations of wholegrain intake in Denmark]. https://www.fuldkorn.dk/files/Rapporter/Fuldkorn%20definition%20og%20vidensgrundlag.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2019
van der Kamp JW, Poutanen K, Seal CJ, Richardson DP (2014) The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'. Food Nutr Res. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.22100
Fuldkornspartnerskabet, Danish Whole Grain Partnership. https://www.fuldkorn.dk/english. Accessed 20 May 2019
Lourenco S, Hansen GL, Stærk B, Frank P, Petersen CT (2019) The whole grain partnership—how a public-private partnership helped increase whole grain intake in Denmark. Cereal Foods World. https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-64-3-0027
Whole Grain Partnership Secretariat (2015) Danish Whole Grain Logo—User Manual 2015. https://fuldkorn.dk/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Fuldkornslogomanual-g%C3%A6ldende-fra-1.-marts-2015-31.-marts-2020.pdf. Accessed 04 Oct 2019
Mejborn H, Ygil KH, Fagt S, Trolle E, Kørup K, Christiensen T (2014) Danskernes fuldkornsindtag 2011–2013. DTU FOOD, Lyngby
Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Boll K, Stripp C, Christensen J, Engholm G, Overvad K (2007) Study design, exposure variables, and socioeconomic determinants of participation in Diet, Cancer and Health: a population-based prospective cohort study of 57,053 men and women in Denmark. Scand J Public Health 35(4):432–441. https://doi.org/10.1080/14034940601047986
Pedersen CB (2011) The Danish Civil Registration System. Scand J Public Health 39(7 Suppl):22–25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494810387965
Laurtizen J (2015) FoodCalc, Version 1. 3, September 2015. Copenhagen, Denmark: Center for Apllied Computer Science, University of Copenhagen. https://www.cancer.dk/dchdata/access-to-data-and-biobank/foodcalc/. Accessed 07 Feb 2020
DTU FOOD—The National Food Institute (Denmark) (2019) Den national undersøgelse af danskernes kost og fysiske aktivitet (DANSDA) 2011–2013. Personlig meddelelse Anja Biltoft-Jensen. DTU FOOD, Lyngby
Fuldkornspartnerskabet, Danish Whole Grain Partnership (2019) Over 1.000 produkter bærer nu det orange fuldkornslogo. https://fuldkorn.dk/pr-og-nyheder/. Accessed 9 July 2019
Hebert JR, Clemow L, Pbert L, Ockene IS, Ockene JK (1995) Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. Int J Epidemiol 24(2):389–398. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/24.2.389
Cade J, Thompson R, Burley V, Warm D (2002) Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires—a review. Public Health Nutr 5(4):567–587. https://doi.org/10.1079/phn2001318
Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Mozaffarian D (2015) Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide. BMJ Open 5(9):e008705. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008705
Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Mozaffarian D (2015) Data supplements. BMJ Open 2014;348:g2272. https://www.bmj.com/node/755680/related#datasupp. Accessed 9 July 2019
Shan Z, Rehm CD, Rogers G, Ruan M, Wang DD, Hu FB, Mozaffarian D, Zhang FF, Bhupathiraju SN (2019) Trends in dietary carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and diet quality among US adults, 1999–2016. JAMA 322(12):1178–1187. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.13771
Kyro C, Skeie G, Dragsted LO, Christensen J, Overvad K, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Lund E, Slimani N, Johnsen NF, Halkjaer J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2012) Intake of whole grain in Scandinavia: intake, sources and compliance with new national recommendations. Scand J Public Health 40(1):76–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494811421057
Kyro C, Skeie G, Dragsted LO, Christensen J, Overvad K, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Lund E, Slimani N, Johnsen NF, Halkjaer J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2011) Intake of whole grains in Scandinavia is associated with healthy lifestyle, socio-economic and dietary factors. Public Health Nutr 14(10):1787–1795. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011000206
Amcoff E, Edberg A, Barbieri H, Lindroos A, Nälsén C, Pearson M, Lemming E (2012) Riksmaten—vuxna 2010–11. Livsmedels- och näringsintag bland vuxna i Sverige. Livsmedelsverket, Uppsala
Landbrug og Fødevarer (2017) Markedsanalyse Færre madpakker—men fortsat populært, 2. August 2017. https://ernaeringsfokus.dk/analyser/maaltider/faerre-madpakker-men-fortsat-populaert. Accessed 9 July 2019
This project was funded by The Danish Whole Grain Partnership.
Julie Louise Munk Andersen is recipient of research funding from The Danish Whole Grain Partnership which is a public private partnership. The Danish Whole Grain Partnership had no role in design of the study, data collection and analyses, interpretation of the data, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Conflict of interest
Jytte Halkjær declare no conflict of interest, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen declare no conflict of interest, Nick Martinussen declare no conflict of interest, Anne-Sofie Qvistgaard Lund declare no conflict of interest, Cecilie Kyrø declare no conflict of interest, Anne Tjønneland declare no conflict of interest, Anja Olsen declare no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards by the regional ethical committees on human studies in Copenhagen and Aarhus (H-15001257), by the Danish Data Protection Agency (2013-41-2043/2014-231-0094) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
About this article
Cite this article
Andersen, J.L.M., Halkjær, J., Rostgaard-Hansen, A.L. et al. Intake of whole grain and associations with lifestyle and demographics: a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health—Next Generations cohort. Eur J Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02289-y
- Whole grain
- Cross-sectional study