Intake of whole grain and associations with lifestyle and demographics: a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health—Next Generations cohort

Abstract

Purpose

The aim was to analyze the intake of whole grain (WG) and associations with lifestyle and demographics in a newly established cohort of Danish adults.

Methods

Between 2015 and 2019, Danes were enrolled into The Diet, Cancer and Health—Next Generations cohort. A total of 38,553 persons were included in the current cross-sectional study, where all completed a 376-item food frequency questionnaire, a lifestyle questionnaire, and a physical examination in a study center where physical measurements and biological samples were collected.

Results

The median intake of WG was 79 g/10 mega joule (MJ) and 54% of the participants consumed the amount of WG recommended in Denmark, which is 75 g/10 MJ. The probability of consuming the recommended amount of WG was highest among men, persons < 30 years, students, persons with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, persons participating in sports, who did not exceed the recommended maximum intake of alcohol and did not smoke. The probability of having a low intake of WG defined as < 25 g/10 MJ was highest among persons with short education, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, persons not participating in sports, persons having an alcohol intake above the recommended maximum level and persons being active smokers.

Conclusion

The median intake of WG was 79 g/10 MJ. The probability of consuming at least 75 g WG/10 MJ was highest among persons who also adhered to healthy lifestyle measured by other factors. Only 6% of the cohort participants consumed < 25 g WG/10 MJ, these persons were more likely to have a general less healthy lifestyle.

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Acknowledgements

This project was funded by The Danish Whole Grain Partnership.

Funding

Julie Louise Munk Andersen is recipient of research funding from The Danish Whole Grain Partnership which is a public private partnership. The Danish Whole Grain Partnership had no role in design of the study, data collection and analyses, interpretation of the data, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Julie Louise Munk Andersen.

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Conflict of interest

Jytte Halkjær declare no conflict of interest, Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen declare no conflict of interest, Nick Martinussen declare no conflict of interest, Anne-Sofie Qvistgaard Lund declare no conflict of interest, Cecilie Kyrø declare no conflict of interest, Anne Tjønneland declare no conflict of interest, Anja Olsen declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards by the regional ethical committees on human studies in Copenhagen and Aarhus (H-15001257), by the Danish Data Protection Agency (2013-41-2043/2014-231-0094) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Andersen, J.L.M., Halkjær, J., Rostgaard-Hansen, A.L. et al. Intake of whole grain and associations with lifestyle and demographics: a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health—Next Generations cohort. Eur J Nutr (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02289-y

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Keywords

  • Whole grain
  • Cross-sectional study
  • Intake
  • Lifestyle
  • Demographics