Fruits and vegetables may induce greater satiety, reduce hunger, decrease energy intake, and modulate energy metabolism, thereby playing a role in weight loss.
To determine the associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and weight change over a 5-year interval in Japanese adults.
This cohort study included 54,015 subjects (54.6% female, mean age 56.5 years) of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Cohort Study who had no known history of major chronic diseases at baseline. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body weight was self-reported. We used multivariable linear mixed-effects regression models to examine the associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and change in body weight.
On average, body weight decreased by 25 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 3, 47] for every 100 g/d increase in total vegetable consumption. Change in fruit consumption was nonlinearly associated with weight change. Fruit consumption was directly associated with weight change among subjects who increased consumption (70 g; 95% CI, 39, 101) but was not associated with weight change among subjects who reduced or did not change fruit consumption. These associations did not vary by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The association with vegetables was restricted to yellow/red vegetables (− 74 g; 95% CI, − 129, − 18) and allium vegetables (− 129 g; 95% CI, − 231, − 28). Lower-fiber vegetables were inversely associated with weight change, whereas lower-fiber fruits or higher-energy fruits were directly associated with weight change beyond 0 g/d change in consumption.
Change in vegetable consumption was inversely associated with weight change while fruit consumption was positively associated with weight change among subjects who increased consumption. The influence of fruits and vegetables on weight change may depend on the characteristics of the fruits and vegetables.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2016) Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet 387(10026):1377–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)30054-x
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, Zitman FG (2010) Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(3):220–229. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.2
Hruby A, Manson JE, Qi L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Sun Q, Willett WC, Hu FB (2016) Determinants and consequences of obesity. Am J Public Health 106(9):1656–1662. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2016.303326
Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L (2014) Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5.24 million UK adults. Lancet 384(9945):755–765. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(14)60892-8
Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH (2009) The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 9:88. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-88
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, Flint AJ, Hannan L, MacInnis RJ, Moore SC, Tobias GS, Anton-Culver H, Freeman LB, Beeson WL, Clipp SL, English DR, Folsom AR, Freedman DM, Giles G, Hakansson N, Henderson KD, Hoffman-Bolton J, Hoppin JA, Koenig KL, Lee IM, Linet MS, Park Y, Pocobelli G, Schatzkin A, Sesso HD, Weiderpass E, Willcox BJ, Wolk A, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Willett WC, Thun MJ (2010) Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med 363(23):2211–2219. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1000367
Aune D, Sen A, Prasad M, Norat T, Janszky I, Tonstad S, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ (2016) BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants. BMJ 353:i2156. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2156
Chan RS, Woo J (2010) Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(3):765–783. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7030765
WHO (2004) Fruit and vegetables for health : report of a joint FAO/WHO workshop. WHO, Geneva
Slavin JL, Lloyd B (2012) Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr 3(4):506–516. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002154
Aune D, Giovannucci E, Boffetta P, Fadnes LT, Keum N, Norat T, Greenwood DC, Riboli E, Vatten LJ, Tonstad S (2017) Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality-a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Epidemiol 46(3):1029–1056. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyw319
Poppitt SD, Prentice AM (1996) Energy density and its role in the control of food intake: evidence from metabolic and community studies. Appetite 26(2):153–174. https://doi.org/10.1006/appe.1996.0013
Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Thorwart ML (1999) Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70(4):448–455. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.4.448
Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59(5):129–139. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb07001.x
Pereira MA, Ludwig DS (2001) Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms. Pediatr Clin N Am 48(4):969–980. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-3955(05)70351-5
Yao M, Roberts SB (2001) Dietary energy density and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59(8 Pt 1):247–258. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb05509.x
Meydani M, Hasan ST (2010) Dietary polyphenols and obesity. Nutrients 2(7):737–751. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2070737
Bertoia ML, Rimm EB, Mukamal KJ, Hu FB, Willett WC, Cassidy A (2016) Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124,086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years. BMJ 352:i17. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i17
Gonzalez-Castejon M, Rodriguez-Casado A (2011) Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res 64(5):438–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2011.07.004
Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Muller MJ, Oberritter H, Schulze M, Stehle P, Watzl B (2012) Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr 51(6):637–663. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-012-0380-y
Mytton OT, Nnoaham K, Eyles H, Scarborough P, Ni Mhurchu C (2014) Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of increased vegetable and fruit consumption on body weight and energy intake. BMC Public Health 14:886. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-886
Kaiser KA, Brown AW, Bohan Brown MM, Shikany JM, Mattes RD, Allison DB (2014) Increased fruit and vegetable intake has no discernible effect on weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 100(2):567–576. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.090548
Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Kalle-Uhlmann T, Arregui M, Buijsse B, Boeing H (2015) Fruit and vegetable consumption and changes in anthropometric variables in adult populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS ONE 10(10):e0140846. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140846
Bertoia ML, Mukamal KJ, Cahill LE, Hou T, Ludwig DS, Mozaffarian D, Willett WC, Hu FB, Rimm EB (2015) Changes in intake of fruits and vegetables and weight change in United States men and women followed for up to 24 years: analysis from three prospective cohort studies. PLoS Med 12(9):e1001878. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001878
Tsugane S, Sawada N (2014) The JPHC study: design and some findings on the typical Japanese diet. Jpn J Clin Oncol 44(9):777–782. https://doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyu096
Rhee JJ, Sampson L, Cho E, Hughes MD, Hu FB, Willett WC (2015) Comparison of methods to account for implausible reporting of energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol 181(4):225–233. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu308
Sasaki S, Kobayashi M, Ishihara J, Tsugane S (2003) Self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study: questionnaire structure, computation algorithms, and area-based mean intake. J Epidemiol 13(1 Suppl):S13–22. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.13.1sup_13
Ishihara J, Sobue T, Yamamoto S, Yoshimi I, Sasaki S, Kobayashi M, Takahashi T, Iitoi Y, Akabane M, Tsugane S (2003) Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in the JPHC Study Cohort II: study design, participant profile and results in comparison with Cohort I. J Epidemiol 13(1 Suppl):S134–147. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.13.1sup_134
Inoue M, Iso H, Yamamoto S, Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S (2008) Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study). Ann Epidemiol 18(7):522–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.03.008
Nanri A, Mizoue T, Takahashi Y, Noda M, Inoue M (2005) Tsugane S (2010) Weight change and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study. Int J Obes 34(2):348–356. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2009.234
Harrell F (2015) Regression modeling strategies: with applications to linear models, logistic and ordinal regression, and survival analysis. Springer, Berlin
Vatcheva KP, Lee M, McCormick JB, Rahbar MH (2016) Multicollinearity in regression analyses conducted in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-1165.1000227
Rubin DB (2008) Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. John Wiley and Sons, New York
Vergnaud AC, Norat T, Romaguera D, Mouw T, May AM, Romieu I, Freisling H, Slimani N, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Morois S, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Boeing H, Buijsse B, Tjonneland A, Halkjaer J, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU, Rodriguez L, Agudo A, Sanchez MJ, Amiano P, Huerta JM, Gurrea AB, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Crowe F, Orfanos P, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Masala G, Pala V, Tumino R, Sacerdote C, Mattiello A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJ, Drake I, Wirfalt E, Johansson I, Hallmans G, Engeset D, Braaten T, Parr CL, Odysseos A, Riboli E, Peeters PH (2012) Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(1):184–193. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.019968
Kahn HS, Tatham LM, Rodriguez C, Calle EE, Thun MJ, Heath CW Jr (1997) Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am J Public Health 87(5):747–754. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.87.5.747
Drapeau V, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Allard L, Fournier G, Leblanc C, Tremblay A (2004) Modifications in food-group consumption are related to long-term body-weight changes. Am J Clin Nutr 80(1):29–37. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.1.29
Bes-Rastrollo M, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Sanchez-Villegas A, de la Fuente AC, Martinez JA (2006) Association of fiber intake and fruit/vegetable consumption with weight gain in a Mediterranean population. Nutrition 22(5):504–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2005.12.006
Zheng CD, Duan YQ, Gao JM, Ruan ZG (2010) Screening for anti-lipase properties of 37 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. J Chin Med Assoc 73(6):319–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1726-4901(10)70068-x
Ahn J, Lee H, Kim S, Park J, Ha T (2008) The anti-obesity effect of quercetin is mediated by the AMPK and MAPK signaling pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 373(4):545–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.077
Hsu CL, Yen GC (2006) Induction of cell apoptosis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by flavonoids is associated with their antioxidant activity. Mol Nutr Food Res 50(11):1072–1079. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600040
Lee JS, Cha YJ, Lee KH, Yim JE (2016) Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr Res Pract 10(2):175–181. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.2.175
Nishimuro H, Ohnishi H, Sato M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Matsunaga I, Naito S, Ippoushi K, Oike H, Nagata T, Akasaka H, Saitoh S, Shimamoto K, Kobori M (2015) Estimated daily intake and seasonal food sources of quercetin in Japan. Nutrients 7(4):2345–2358. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042345
Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Nelson-Dooley C, Baile CA (2006) Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by ajoene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Obesity 14(3):388–397. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.52
Wu T, Gao X, Chen M, van Dam RM (2009) Long-term effectiveness of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs diet-only interventions for weight loss: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev 10(3):313–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00547.x
Sasazuki S, Inoue M, Tsuji I, Sugawara Y, Tamakoshi A, Matsuo K, Wakai K, Nagata C, Tanaka K, Mizoue T, Tsugane S (2011) Body mass index and mortality from all causes and major causes in Japanese: results of a pooled analysis of 7 large-scale cohort studies. J Epidemiol 21(6):417–430. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.je20100180
Tsugane S, Sasaki S, Tsubono Y (2002) Under- and overweight impact on mortality among middle-aged Japanese men and women: a 10-y follow-up of JPHC study cohort I. Int J Obes Relat Metab Dis 26(4):529–537. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801961
This study was supported by the National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund (23-A-31[toku], 26-A-2 and 29-A-4, since 2011), a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (19shi-2, from 1989 to 2010), and Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF-CPS-2016-1-1). Members of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study) are listed at the following site (as of April 2017): https://epi.ncc.go.jp/en/jphc/781/7951.html.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has a conflict of interest to declare.
This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Center of Japan and was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendment. All participants gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Wilunda, C., Sawada, N., Goto, A. et al. Associations between changes in fruit and vegetable consumption and weight change in Japanese adults. Eur J Nutr 60, 217–227 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02236-x