Cross-sectional association between non-soy legume consumption, serum uric acid and hyperuricemia: the PREDIMED-Plus study



To assess the association between the consumption of non-soy legumes and different subtypes of non-soy legumes and serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia in elderly individuals with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome.


A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. We included 6329 participants with information on non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels. Non-soy legume consumption was estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models and Cox regression models were used to assess the associations between tertiles of non-soy legume consumption, different subtypes of non-soy legume consumption and SUA levels or hyperuricemia prevalence, respectively.


Individuals in the highest tertile (T3) of total non-soy legume, lentil and pea consumption, had 0.14 mg/dL, 0.19 mg/dL and 0.12 mg/dL lower SUA levels, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1), which was considered the reference one. Chickpea and dry bean consumption showed no association. In multivariable models, participants located in the top tertile of total non-soy legumes [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.89; 95% CI 0.82–0.97; p trend = 0.01, lentils (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82–0.97; p trend = 0.01), dry beans (PR: 0.91; 95% C: 0.84–0.99; p trend = 0.03) and peas (PR: 0.89; 95% CI 0.82–0.97; p trend = 0.01)] presented a lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (vs. the bottom tertile). Chickpea consumption was not associated with hyperuricemia prevalence.


In this study of elderly subjects with metabolic syndrome, we observed that despite being a purine-rich food, non-soy legumes were inversely associated with SUA levels and hyperuricemia prevalence.

Trial registration

ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: 24 July 2014.

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The authors especially thank the PREDIMED-Plus participants for their enthusiastic collaboration, the PREDIMED-Plus personnel for their outstanding support, and the personnel of all associated primary care centers for their exceptional effort. CIBEROBN, CIBERESP and CIBERDEM are initiatives of Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. We thank the PREDIMED-Plus Biobank Network, part of the National Biobank Platform of Instituto de Salud Carlos III for storing and managing biological samples. List of PREDIMED-Plus study investigators; Steering Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó (Coordinator), M.A. Martínez-González, M. Fitó. E. Ros, FJ. Tinahones, D. Corella and R. Estruch. Executive Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó, M.A. Martínez-González, D. Corella, M. Fitó, J. Vioque, D. Romaguera, J.A Martínez, J. Wärnberg, J. Lopez-Miranda, R. Estruch, A. Bueno-Cavanillas, Á.M. Alonso-Gómez, J.A. Tur, FJ. Tinahones, L. Serra-Majem, V. Martin, J. Lapetra, C. Vázquez, X. Pinto, J. Vidal, L. Daimiel, M. Delgado-Rodríguez, M.A. Rubio and E. Ros. Dietary and Lifestyle Intervention Committee: J. Salas-Salvadó (chair), M.A. Martínez-González, M. Fitó and R. Estruch; Dietary Intervention: J. Salas-Salvadó (chair), N. Babio, E. Ros, A. Sánchez-Tainta; Physical Exercise: M. Fitó (chair), H. Schröder, A. Marcos, D. Corella, J. Warnberg; Behavioural support: R. Estruch (chair), F. Fernández-Aranda, C. Botella and J. Salas-Salvadó. Clinical Event Ascertainment Committee: F. Arós (Chair), M. Aldamiz, A. Alonso-Gómez, L. Forga, A. García-Layana, J. Portu, J. Timiraos, A. González-Pinto, I. Zorrilla, M. Martínez-Kareaga, P. Seoane. 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The PREDIMED-Plus trial was supported by the official funding agency for biomedical research of the Spanish government, ISCIII, through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS), which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (four coordinated FIS projects led by J.S.-S. and J.Vid., including the following projects: PI13/00673, PI13/00492, PI13/00272, PI13/01123, PI13/00462, PI13/00233, PI13/02184, PI13/00728, PI13/01090, PI13/01056, PI14/01722, PI14/00636, PI14/00618, PI14/00696, PI14/01206, PI14/01919, PI14/00853, PI14/01374, PI14/00972, PI14/00728, PI14/01471, PI16/00473, PI16/00662, PI16/01873, PI16/01094, PI16/00501, PI16/00533, PI16/00381, PI16/00366, PI16/01522, PI16/01120, PI17/00764, PI17/01183, PI17/00855, PI17/01347, PI17/00525, PI17/01827, PI17/00532, PI17/00215, PI17/01441, PI17/00508, PI17/01732, and PI17/00926), the Especial Action Project entitled: Implementación y evaluación de una intervención intensiva sobre la actividad física Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant to J.S.-S., the European Research Council (Advanced Research Grant 2013–2018, 340918) to M.Á.M.-G., the Recercaixa Grant to J.S.-S. (2013ACUP00194), Grants from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI0458/2013, PS0358/2016, and PI0137/2018), a Grant from the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/017), a SEMERGEN Grant, and funds from the European Regional Development Fund (CB06/03). O.C. is supported by ISCIII Grant JR17/00022. M Rosa Bernal-Lopez was supported by “Miguel Servet Type I” program (CP15/00028) from the ISCIII-Madrid (Spain), cofinanced by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional-FEDER.

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Correspondence to Jordi Salas-Salvadó.

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All participants provided written informed consent, and the study protocol and procedures were approved according to the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki by all the participating institutions.

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The members of PREDIMED-Plus Investigators are listed in the Acknowledgements section.

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Becerra-Tomás, N., Mena-Sánchez, G., Díaz-López, A. et al. Cross-sectional association between non-soy legume consumption, serum uric acid and hyperuricemia: the PREDIMED-Plus study. Eur J Nutr 59, 2195–2206 (2020).

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  • Serum uric acid
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Non-soy legumes