Intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-fried fish in relation to incidence of chronic kidney disease in young adults: a 25-year follow-up
- 108 Downloads
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing rapidly in many countries and has become a major public health concern. Although intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω3PUFA) and its food source—fish—may have renal protective effects, little is known about the longitudinal association between these dietary factors and CKD incidence.
A total of 4133 healthy individuals of black and white race aged 18–30 at baseline (1985–1986) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were enrolled and followed up over 25 years. LCω3PUFA and fish intake were assessed by an interview-based dietary history questionnaire at baseline, year 7 (1992–1993) and 20 (2005–2006).
Four hundred and eighty-nine incident cases of CKD were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, LCω3PUFA intake was inversely associated with CKD incidence [HR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.60–0.89), P = 0.002, with one standard division (0.19 g/day) increment in LCω3PUFA]. This inverse association was persisted among females [0.64 (95% CI 0.48, 0.84; P = 0.002], but not males (Pinteraction = 0.070). A marginal significant inverse association was also found between non-fried fish consumption and CKD incidence (HR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.73, 1.01; P = 0.073).
Dietary LCω3PUFA intake was inversely associated with incidence of CKD among American young adults over 25 years of follow-up. The suggestive evidence of the inverse association between non-fried fish consumption with CKD incidence needs further confirmation.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Proteinuria Fish Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
Chronic kidney disease
Estimated glomerular filtration rate
Glomerular filtration rate
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
We thank the investigators and the staff of the CARDIA Study for their valuable contributions.
The manuscript has been read and approved by all coauthors. All individuals listed as authors have substantially contributed to the manuscript preparation, and no one other than the authors listed has contributed significantly to this study. Specifically, IP, PX, and KH contributed to the conception and design of the study. IP, PX, CLT, PK, KL, and KH contributed to the analysis and interpretation of data. All of the listed authors contributed to drafting of the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content.
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is supported by contracts HHSN268201300025C, HHSN268201300026C, HHSN268201300027C, HSN268201300028C, HHSN268201300029C, and HHSN268200900041C from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA), and an intra-agency agreement between NIA and NHLBI (AG0005). This study was partially supported by grants from the NIH (R01HL081572 and R01ES021735, to Ka He). Inwhee Park was supported by Ajou University School of Medicine, the Republic of Korea. The study sponsor had no role in study design, analysis, or interpretation of data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.
- 3.Saran R, Robinson B, Abbott KC, Agodoa LY, Ayanian J, Bragg-Gresham J, Balkrishnan R, Chen JL, Cope E, Eggers PW, Gillen D, Gipson D, Hailpern SM, Hall YN, Han Y, He K, Herman W, Heung M, Hutton D, Jacobsen SJ, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kovesdy CP, Li Y, Lu Y, Molnar MZ, Morgenstern H, Nallamothu B, Nguyen DV, O’Hare AM, Obi Y, Plattner B, Pisoni R, Port FK, Rao P, Ravel V, Rhee CM, Sakhuja A, Schaubel DE, Selewski DT, Sim JJ, Song P, Streja E, Kurella Tamura M, Tentori F, White S, Woodside K, Hirth RA, Shahinian V (2017) US Renal Data System 2016 annual data report: epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis 69:A7–A8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 4.Bruck K, Stel VS, Gambaro G, Hallan S, Volzke H, Arnlov J, Kastarinen M, Guessous I, Vinhas J, Stengel B, Brenner H, Chudek J, Romundstad S, Tomson C, Gonzalez AO, Bello AK, Ferrieres J, Palmieri L, Browne G, Capuano V, Van Biesen W, Zoccali C, Gansevoort R, Navis G, Rothenbacher D, Ferraro PM, Nitsch D, Wanner C, Jager KJ (2016) CKD prevalence varies across the European general population. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN 27:2135–2147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Manson JE, Cook NR, Lee IM, Christen W, Bassuk SS, Mora S, Gibson H, Albert CM, Gordon D, Copeland T, D’Agostino D, Friedenberg G, Ridge C, Bubes V, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC, Buring JE, VITAL Research Group (2019) Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. N Engl J Med 380:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Aung T, Halsey J, Kromhout D, Gerstein HC, Marchioli R, Tavazzi L, Geleijnse JM, Rauch B, Ness A, Galan P, Chew EY, Bosch J, Collins R, Lewington S, Armitage J, Clarke R, Omega-3 Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration (2018) Associations of omega-3 fatty acid supplement use with cardiovascular disease risks: meta-analysis of ten trials involving 77917 individuals. JAMA cardiology 3:225–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Jacobs DR Jr, Murtaugh MA, Steffes M, Yu X, Roseman J, Goetz FC (2002) Gender- and race-specific determination of albumin excretion rate using albumin-to-creatinine ratio in single, untimed urine specimens: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol 155:1114–1119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Garland M, Morris JS, Rosner BA, Stampfer MJ, Spate VL, Baskett CJ, Willett WC, Hunter DJ (1993) Toenail trace element levels as biomarkers: reproducibility over a 6-year period. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prevent Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res Cospons Am Soc Prevent Oncol 2:493–497Google Scholar
- 37.Miyazaki M, Takemura N, Watanabe S, Hata N, Misawa Y, Okuyama H (2000) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin. Biochem Biophys Acta 1483:101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Rudkowska I, Paradis AM, Thifault E, Julien P, Tchernof A, Couture P, Lemieux S, Barbier O, Vohl MC (2013) Transcriptomic and metabolomic signatures of an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in a normolipidemic/normocholesterolemic Caucasian population. J Nutr Biochem 24:54–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Thifault E, Cormier H, Bouchard-Mercier A, Rudkowska I, Paradis AM, Garneau V, Ouellette C, Lemieux S, Couture P, Vohl MC (2013) Effects of age, sex, body mass index and APOE genotype on cardiovascular biomarker response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenom 6:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Robbesyn F, Auge N, Vindis C, Cantero AV, Barbaras R, Negre-Salvayre A, Salvayre R (2005) High-density lipoproteins prevent the oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced epidermal [corrected] growth factor receptor activation and subsequent matrix metalloproteinase-2 upregulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:1206–1212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.Ishikado A, Nishio Y, Morino K, Ugi S, Kondo H, Makino T, Kashiwagi A, Maegawa H (2010) Low concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal increases heme oxygenase-1 expression through activation of Nrf2 and antioxidative activity in vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 402:99–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 55.Parsa A, Kao WH, Xie D, Astor BC, Li M, Hsu CY, Feldman HI, Parekh RS, Kusek JW, Greene TH, Fink JC, Anderson AH, Choi MJ, Wright JT Jr, Lash JP, Freedman BI, Ojo A, Winkler CA, Raj DS, Kopp JB, He J, Jensvold NG, Tao K, Lipkowitz MS, Appel LJ (2013) APOL1 risk variants, race, and progression of chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 369:2183–2196CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar