The effect of probiotics on inflammatory biomarkers: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials



No study has summarized earlier findings on the effect of probiotic supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to systematically review the available placebo-controlled clinical trials about the effect of probiotic supplementation on several inflammatory biomarkers in adults.


Relevant papers published up to March 2018 were searched up through PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, using following suitable keywords. Clinical trials that examined the effect of probiotic supplementation on inflammation in adults were included.


Overall, 42 randomized clinical trials (1138 participants in intervention and 1120 participants in control groups) were included. Combining findings from included studies, we found a significant reduction in serum hs-CRP [standardized mean difference (SMD) − 0.46; 95% CI − 0.73, − 0.19], TNF-a (− 0.21; − 0.34, − 0.08), IL-6 (− 0.37; − 0.51, − 0.24), IL-12 (− 0.47; − 0.67, − 0.27), and IL-4 concentrations (− 0.48; − 0.76, − 0.20) after probiotic supplementation. Pooling effect sizes from 11 studies with 12 effect sizes, a significant increase in IL-10 concentrations was seen (0.21; 0.04, 0.38). We failed to find a significant effect of probiotic supplementation on serum IL-1B (− 0.17; − 0.37, 0.02), IL-8 (− 0.01; − 0.30, 0.28), and IFN-g (− 0.08; − 0.31, 0.15) and IL-17 concentrations (0.06; − 0.34, 0.46).


Probiotic supplementation significantly reduced serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, hs-CRP, TNF-a, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-4, but it did not influence IL-1B, IL-8, IFN-g, and IL-17 concentrations. A significant increase in serum concentrations of IL-10, as a anti-inflammatory cytokine was also documented after probiotic supplementation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7



Standardized mean difference


Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Metabolic syndrome


Cardiovascular disease


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Short-chain fatty acids


Inflammatory bowel disease


Irritable bowel syndrome


C-reactive protein


Tumor necrosis factor-a


Standard deviation


Standard error


Mean difference


Randomized clinical trial


Gut-associated lymphoid tissue




Interleukin 1 beta




  1. 1.

    Robertson CM, Coopersmith CM (2006) The systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Microbes Infect 8(5):1382–1389

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Huang Y, Chen Z (2016) Inflammatory bowel disease related innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Am J Transl Res 8(6):2490

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Pradhan A (2007) Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes: inflammatory basis of glucose metabolic disorders. Nutr Rev 65(suppl_3):S152–S156

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Guarner V, Rubio-Ruiz ME (2015) Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Interdiscip Top Gerontol 40:99–106

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Başaranoğlu M, Örmeci N (2014) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management. Turk J Gastroenterol 25:127–132

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Speer K, Upton D, Semple S, McKune A (2018) Systemic low-grade inflammation in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. J Inflamm Res 11:111

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ashtary-Larky D, Lamuchi-Deli N, Milajerdi A, Salehi MB, Alipour M, Kooti W, Ashtary-Larky P, Alamiri F, Sheikhi A, Afrisham R (2017) Inflammatory and biochemical biomarkers in response to high intensity resistance training in trained and untrained men. Asian J Sports Med 8(2):1A–1A

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kaluza J, Harris H, Melhus H, Michaëlsson K, Wolk A (2018) Questionnaire-based anti-inflammatory diet index as a predictor of low-grade systemic inflammation. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., New Rochelle

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ozawa M, Shipley M, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A, Brunner EJ (2017) Dietary pattern, inflammation and cognitive decline: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Clin Nutr 36(2):506–512

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    McLoughlin RF, Berthon BS, Jensen ME, Baines KJ, Wood LG (2017) Short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, synbiotics, and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 106(3):930–945

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Li M, van Esch BC, Wagenaar GT, Garssen J, Folkerts G, Henricks PA (2018) Pro-and anti-inflammatory effects of short chain fatty acids on immune and endothelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol 831:52–59

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Campbell AW (2016) Inflammation and a solution: probiotics. Altern Ther Health Med 22(5):8

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wang Z-J, Chen X-F, Zhang Z-X, Li Y-C, Deng J, Tu J, Song Z-Q, Zou Q-H (2017) Effects of anti-Helicobacter pylori concomitant therapy and probiotic supplementation on the throat and gut microbiota in humans. Microb Pathog 109:156–161

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Goldin B, Gorbach S (2008) Clinical indications for probiotics: an overview. Clin Infect Dis 46(Supplement_2):S96–S100

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kaur IP, Kuhad A, Garg A, Chopra K (2009) Probiotics: delineation of prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. J Med Food 12(2):219–235

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Alberda C, Gramlich L, Meddings J, Field C, McCargar L, Kutsogiannis D, Fedorak R, Madsen K (2007) Effects of probiotic therapy in critically ill patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85(3):816–823

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Han SH, Suk KT, Kim DJ, Kim MY, Baik SK, Kim YD, Cheon GJ, Choi DH, Ham YL, Shin DH (2015) Effects of probiotics (cultured Lactobacillus subtilis/Streptococcus faecium) in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis: randomized-controlled multicenter study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 27(11):1300–1306

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Pineda Mde L, Thompson SF, Summers K, de Leon F, Pope J, Reid G (2011) A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study of probiotics in active rheumatoid arthritis. Med Sci Monit 17(6):CR347–C354

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bajaj JS, Heuman DM, Hylemon PB, Sanyal AJ, Puri P, Sterling RK, Luketic V, Stravitz RT, Siddiqui MS, Fuchs M, Thacker LR, Wade JB, Daita K, Sistrun S, White MB, Noble NA, Thorpe C, Kakiyama G, Pandak WM, Sikaroodi M, Gillevet PM (2014) Randomised clinical trial: Lactobacillus GG modulates gut microbiome, metabolome and endotoxemia in patients with cirrhosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 39(10):1113–1125.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Maslova E, Bhattacharya S, Lin S-W, Michels KB (2010) Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 92(5):1120–1132

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Akkasheh G, Kashani-Poor Z, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Akbari H, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A (2016) Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic administration in patients with major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition 32(3):315–320

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J (2014) Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Rheum Dis 17(5):519–527.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Andreasen AS, Larsen N, Pedersen-Skovsgaard T, Berg RM, Moller K, Svendsen KD, Jakobsen M, Pedersen BK (2010) Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects. Br J Nutr 104(12):1831–1838.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Asemi Z, Zare Z, Shakeri H, Sabihi SS, Esmaillzadeh A (2013) Effect of multispecies probiotic supplements on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP, and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Nutr Metab 63(1–2):1–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Behrouz V, Jazayeri S, Aryaeian N, Zahedi MJ, Hosseini F (2017) Effects of probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on leptin, adiponectin, and glycemic parameters in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized clinical trial. Middle East J Dig Dis 9(3):150–157.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Borges NA, Carmo FL, Stockler-Pinto MB, de Brito JS, Dolenga CJ, Ferreira DC, Nakao LS, Rosado A, Fouque D, Mafra D (2018) Probiotic supplementation in chronic kidney disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Ren Nutr 28(1):28–36.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Costanza AC, Moscavitch SD, Faria Neto HC, Mesquita ET (2015) Probiotic therapy with Saccharomyces boulardii for heart failure patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Int J Cardiol 179:348–350.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Sanaie S, Mahmoodpoor A, Hamishehkar H (2013) Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) in critically ill patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (pilot study). Pak J Med Sci 29(2):490–494

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Firouzi S, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA, Barakatun-Nisak MY (2017) Effect of multi-strain probiotics (multi-strain microbial cell preparation) on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 56(4):1535–1550.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Flichy-Fernández A, Ata-Ali J, Alegre-Domingo T, Candel-Martí E, Ata-Ali F, Palacio J, Peñarrocha-Diago M (2015) The effect of orally administered probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri-containing tablets in peri-implant mucositis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Periodontal Res 50(6):775–785

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Gomes AC, de Sousa RG, Botelho PB, Gomes TL, Prada PO, Mota JF (2017) The additional effects of a probiotic mix on abdominal adiposity and antioxidant status: a double-blind, randomized trial. Obesity (Silver Spring Md) 25(1):30–38.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Groeger D, O’Mahony L, Murphy EF, Bourke JF, Dinan TG, Kiely B, Shanahan F, Quigley EM (2013) Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 modulates host inflammatory processes beyond the gut. Gut Microbes 4(4):325–339.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Gupta N, Kumar A, Sharma P, Garg V, Sharma BC, Sarin SK (2013) Effects of the adjunctive probiotic VSL#3 on portal haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis and large varices: a randomized trial. Liver Int 33(8):1148–1157.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Hatakka K, Martio J, Korpela M, Herranen M, Poussa T, Laasanen T, Saxelin M, Vapaatalo H, Moilanen E, Korpela R (2003) Effects of probiotic therapy on the activity and activation of mild rheumatoid arthritis—a pilot study. Scand J Rheumatol 32(4):211–215

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Jafarnejad S, Djafarian K, Fazeli MR, Yekaninejad MS, Rostamian A, Keshavarz SA (2017) Effects of a multispecies probiotic supplement on bone health in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutr 36(7):497–506.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Jenks K, Stebbings S, Burton J, Schultz M, Herbison P, Highton J (2010) Probiotic therapy for the treatment of spondyloarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. J Rheumatol 37(10):2118–2125.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Jones M, Martoni C, Prakash S (2012) Cholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 66(11):1234

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Kouchaki E, Tamtaji OR, Salami M, Bahmani F, Daneshvar Kakhaki R, Akbari E, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Asemi Z (2017) Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr 36(5):1245–1249.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Minami J, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, Odamaki T, Xiao JZ, Abe F, Nakajima S, Hamamoto Y, Saitoh S, Shimoda T (2015) Oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 modifies metabolic functions in adults with obese tendencies in a randomised controlled trial. J Nutr Sci 4:e17.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Mohseni S, Bayani M, Bahmani F, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Bayani MA, Jafari P, Asemi Z (2017) The beneficial effects of probiotic administration on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Metab Res Rev.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Nagata Y, Yoshida M, Kitazawa H, Araki E, Gomyo T (2010) Improvements in seasonal allergic disease with Lactobacillus plantarum no. 14. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74(9):1869–1877.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Natarajan R, Pechenyak B, Vyas U, Ranganathan P, Weinberg A, Liang P, Mallappallil MC, Norin AJ, Friedman EA, Saggi SJ (2014) Randomized controlled trial of strain-specific probiotic formulation (Renadyl) in dialysis patients. BioMed Res Int 2014:568571.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Panahi Y, Ghanei M, Vahedi E, Mousavi SH, Imani S, Sahebkar A (2017) Efficacy of probiotic supplementation on quality of life and pulmonary symptoms due to sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Drug Chem Toxicol 40(1):24–29.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Pinto-Sanchez MI, Hall GB, Ghajar K, Nardelli A, Bolino C, Lau JT, Martin FP, Cominetti O, Welsh C, Rieder A, Traynor J, Gregory C, De Palma G, Pigrau M, Ford AC, Macri J, Berger B, Bergonzelli G, Surette MG, Collins SM, Moayyedi P, Bercik P (2017) Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 reduces depression scores and alters brain activity: a pilot study in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 153(2):448–459 e448.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Rajkumar H, Mahmood N, Kumar M, Varikuti SR, Challa HR, Myakala SP (2014) Effect of probiotic (VSL#3) and omega-3 on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory markers, and gut colonization in overweight adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Mediat Inflamm 2014:348959.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Redondo N, Nova E, Gheorghe A, Díaz LE, Hernández A, Marcos A (2017) Evaluation of Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 strain as a coadjuvant in a vaccination process: a randomised clinical trial in healthy adults. Nutr Metab 14(1):2

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Sepideh A, Karim P, Hossein A, Leila R, Hamdollah M, Mohammad EG, Mojtaba S, Mohammad S, Ghader G, Seyed Moayed A (2015) Effects of multistrain probiotic supplementation on glycemic and inflammatory indices in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Shariaty Z, Mahmoodi Shan GR, Farajollahi M, Amerian M, Behnam Pour N (2017) The effects of probiotic supplement on hemoglobin in chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis: a randomized clinical trial. J Res Med Sci 22:74.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Sharma B, Srivastava S, Singh N, Sachdev V, Kapur S, Saraya A (2011) Role of probiotics on gut permeability and endotoxemia in patients with acute pancreatitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol 45(5):442–448.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Shoaei T, Heidari-Beni M, Tehrani HG, Feizi A, Esmaillzadeh A, Askari G (2015) Effects of probiotic supplementation on pancreatic beta-cell function and C-reactive protein in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int J Prev Med 6:27.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Sierra S, Lara-Villoslada F, Sempere L, Olivares M, Boza J, Xaus J (2010) Intestinal and immunological effects of daily oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 to healthy adults. Anaerobe 16(3):195–200

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Soleimani A, Zarrati Mojarrad M, Bahmani F, Taghizadeh M, Ramezani M, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Esmaillzadeh A, Asemi Z (2017) Probiotic supplementation in diabetic hemodialysis patients has beneficial metabolic effects. Kidney Int 91(2):435–442.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Sharif SK, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Zavvari S (2014) Probiotic supplementation improves inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 30(4):430–435.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Villar-Garcia J, Guerri-Fernandez R, Moya A, Gonzalez A, Hernandez JJ, Lerma E, Guelar A, Sorli L, Horcajada JP, Artacho A, G Knobel DA H (2017) Impact of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii on the gut microbiome composition in HIV-treated patients: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 12(4):e0173802.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Wang I-K, Wu Y-Y, Yang Y-F, Ting I-W, Lin C-C, Yen T-H, Chen J-H, Wang C-H, Huang C-C, Lin H-C (2015) The effect of probiotics on serum levels of cytokine and endotoxin in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Benef Microbes 6(4):423–430

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Xiao J (2006) Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BBS36 in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 16:86–93

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Yamamoto K, Yokoyama K, Matsukawa T, Kato S, Kato S, Yamada K, Hirota T (2016) Efficacy of prolonged ingestion of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. J Dairy Sci 99(7):5039–5046

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Zamani B, Golkar HR, Farshbaf S, Emadi-Baygi M, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Jafari P, Akhavan R, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z (2016) Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Rheum Dis.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Ferns GA, Vatanparast H (2017) Impact of probiotic administration on serum C-reactive protein concentrations: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Nutrients 9(1):20

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Ma Y-Y, Li L, Yu C-H, Shen Z, Chen L-H, Li Y-M (2013) Effects of probiotics on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 19(40):6911

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Liu D, Jiang X-Y, Zhou L-S, Song J-H, Zhang X (2016) Effects of probiotics on intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine 95(15):e3342

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Aqaeinezhad Rudbane SM, Rahmdel S, Abdollahzadeh SM, Zare M, Bazrafshan A, Mazloomi SM (2018) The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Inflammopharmacology 26:67–76

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Tam CS, Redman LM (2013) Adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction: a clinical perspective. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 15(1):19–24

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Morita H, He F, Fuse T, Ouwehand AC, Hashimoto H, Hosoda M, Mizumachi K, Kurisaki J (2002) Adhesion of lactic acid bacteria to caco-2 cells and their effect on cytokine secretion. Microbiol Immunol 46(4):293–297

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    He F, Ouwehand AC, Isolauri E, Hashimoto H, Benno Y, Salminen S (2001) Comparison of mucosal adhesion and species identification of bifidobacteria isolated from healthy and allergic infants. Pathog Dis 30(1):43–47

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Pankevich E, Astakhova A, Chistyakov D, Sergeeva M (2017) Antiinflammatory effect of rosiglitazone via modulation of mRNA stability of interleukin 10 and cyclooxygenase 2 in astrocytes. Biochemistry 82(11):1276–1284

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Calcinaro F, Dionisi S, Marinaro M, Candeloro P, Bonato V, Marzotti S, Corneli R, Ferretti E, Gulino A, Grasso F (2005) Oral probiotic administration induces interleukin-10 production and prevents spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Diabetologia 48(8):1565–1575

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Kaji R, Kiyoshima-Shibata J, Tsujibe S, Nanno M, Shida K (2018) Probiotic induction of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 production by macrophages is modulated by co-stimulation with microbial components. J Dairy Sci 101(4):2838–2841

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Icaza-Chávez M (2013) Gut microbiota in health and disease. Revista de Gastroenterología de México 78(4):240–248 (English edition)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Shacklett BL, Cox CA, Sandberg JK, Stollman NH, Jacobson MA, Nixon DF (2003) Trafficking of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T cells to gut-associated lymphoid tissue during chronic infection. J Virol 77(10):5621–5631

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Malin M, Verronen P, Korhonen H, Syväoja E-L, Salminen S, Mykkänen H, Arvilommi H, Eerola E, Isolauri E (1997) Dietary therapy with Lactobacillus GG, bovine colostrum or bovine immune colostrum in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: evaluation of effect on gut defence mechanisms. Inflammopharmacology 5(3):219–236

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Vitaliti G, Pavone P, Guglielmo F, Spataro G, Falsaperla R (2014) The immunomodulatory effect of probiotics beyond atopy: an update. J Asthma 51(3):320–332

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Rautava S, Kalliomäki M, Isolauri E (2005) New therapeutic strategy for combating the increasing burden of allergic disease: probiotics—a Nutrition, Allergy, Mucosal Immunology and Intestinal Microbiota (NAMI) Research Group report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(1):31–37

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references



Author information




AM, BL, and AE designed research; AM, SMM, AS, ASM, and MP conducted research; AM analyzed data; AM and AE wrote the paper; and AE had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Bagher Larijani or Ahmad Esmaillzadeh.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 241 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Milajerdi, A., Mousavi, S.M., Sadeghi, A. et al. The effect of probiotics on inflammatory biomarkers: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr 59, 633–649 (2020).

Download citation


  • Diet
  • Probiotic
  • Inflammation
  • Cytokine
  • Meta-analysis