Diet quality index for Brazilian adolescents: the ERICA study

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of adolescents using a food-based diet quality index and their compliance with a healthy dietary guideline

Methods

Participants included 71,553 Brazilian adolescents (12–17 years old) from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional school-based multicenter study.. Dietary intake was measured by one 24-h recall. A second recall was collected in a random subsample (~ 10%) to correct within-person variability. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents adapted for Brazilians (DQIA-BR) was used to measure the overall quality of the dietary intake. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to estimate usual dietary intake. The DQIA-BR and the distribution of its components (quality, diversity, and equilibrium) were analyzed according to sex, geographical area, and type of school

Results

The mean (SD) DQIA-BR scores were 14.8% (6.1%) for females and 19.0% (6.3%) for males. All analyzed strata revealed low scores of DQIA-BR and its components. The median usual intake was five to sevenfold below the recommendations for vegetables and fruits and approximately twofold below the recommendations for dairy. The highest DQIA-BR mean scores were found in the northern region [17.0% (6.4%), females; 20.7% (6.3%), males]. Adolescents in both types of schools had relatively similar median intakes of snacks (~ 85 g) and sugared drinks (~ 600 ml)

Conclusions

The overall diet quality of Brazilian adolescents is inadequate based on evaluated parameters in all regions and socioeconomic backgrounds.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Brazilian Funding Authority for Studies and Projects (FINEP) (Grant number 01090421) and the Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) (Grant numbers 565037/2010-2, 405009/2012-7, 457050/2013-6), and DBR received the Spouse Education Fund (SEF) grant from the Community Committee for International Students of Stanford University Bechtel International Center (CA, USA) to participate in a Stata software course. FINEP, CNPq, and SEF had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article. DBR would like to acknowledge the Spouse Education Fund (SEF) grant provided by the Community Committee for International Students of Stanford University (CA, USA). The authors gratefully acknowledge Inge Huybrechts from the HELENA study (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) for her help in the calculation of the diet index and Eliseu Verly Júnior for being a consultant.

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Correspondence to Débora Barbosa Ronca.

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The present study was approved by the appropriate ethics committee, and all procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

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Ronca, D.B., Blume, C.A., Cureau, F.V. et al. Diet quality index for Brazilian adolescents: the ERICA study. Eur J Nutr 59, 539–556 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01923-8

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Keywords

  • Diet quality
  • Dietary index
  • Dietary patterns
  • Nutrition assessment
  • Adolescents