Association between dietary cadmium intake and early gastric cancer risk in a Korean population: a case–control study

Abstract

Purpose

Foods such as grains and vegetables are the dominant sources of exposure to cadmium, which has been classified as a carcinogen by various public health agencies. Cadmium exposure is a growing concern due to its associations with numerous harmful health effects, including gastric cancer risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods with early gastric cancer risk.

Methods

A case–control study including 1245 subjects (cases, 415; controls, 830) was conducted in Korea. The dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Results

After adjustment for covariates, the gastric cancer risk was increased for participants in the highest tertile of cadmium intake [odds ratios (ORs) 1.33, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 0.94–1.88], but there was no significance. Both female (ORs 2.71, 95% CIs 1.37–5.36) and male (ORs 1.63, 95% CIs 1.07–2.50) participants in the highest tertile of rice consumption had a higher gastric cancer risk than did those in the lowest tertile. Men in the highest tertile of crab consumption had a gastric cancer risk 2.23 times greater than that of men in the lowest tertile (ORs 2.23, 95% CIs 1.21–4.13), but a difference was not seen in women.

Conclusions

Future studies examining the causal effects of dietary cadmium intake and the consumption of cadmium-contributing foods on early gastric cancer risk in large-scale prospective cohorts are recommended.

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Abbreviations

FFQ:

Food frequency questionnaire

ORs:

Odds ratios

95% CIs:

95% confidence intervals

H. pylori :

Helicobacter pylori

NCC:

National Cancer Center

CPD:

Cancer Prevention and Detection

IRB:

Institutional Review Board

BMI:

Body Mass Index

NHANES:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

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Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by National Cancer Center (Grant nos. 1410260, 1810090, and 1810980).

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Correspondence to Jeongseon Kim.

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Kim, H., Lee, J., Woo, H.D. et al. Association between dietary cadmium intake and early gastric cancer risk in a Korean population: a case–control study. Eur J Nutr 58, 3255–3266 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1868-x

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Keywords

  • Dietary cadmium
  • Cadmium-contributing food
  • Gastric cancer
  • Case–control study