Dietary intake of (poly)phenols in children and adults: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008–2014)
Current evidence accounts for the role of (poly)phenolic compounds in the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Detailed information on population-level intakes is required to translate these findings into recommendations. This work aimed to estimate (poly)phenol intake in the UK population using data from a nationally representative survey.
Data from 9374 participants (4636 children aged 1.5–18 years and 4738 adults aged 19 years and over) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (NDNS RP) 2008–2014 was used. (Poly)phenol content of foods consumed in the NDNS RP was identified using Phenol-Explorer and through literature searches. Data on flavonoids, phenolic acids, and stilbenes were collected. Total (poly)phenol content was also assessed.
Mean total (poly)phenol intake ranged from 266.6 ± 166.1 mg/day in children aged 1.5–3 years to 1035.1 ± 544.3 mg/day in adults aged 65 years and over, with flavan-3-ols and hydroxycinnamic acids being the most consumed (poly)phenols across all age groups. (Poly)phenol intake was higher in males in all age groups except for adults aged 19–34 and 50–64 years, where intakes were marginally higher in females. Energy-adjusted intakes accounted for the pattern of increasing (poly)phenol intakes with age and a higher intake was observed in females across all age groups, with the exception of children aged 1.5–3 years. The main food sources were non-alcoholic beverages and fruits, being the main compounds flavan-3-ols and caffeoylquinic acids.
This analysis provides estimates of (poly)phenol intake from a representative sample of the UK general population, which can help inform the health implications of (poly)phenol intake.
KeywordsPolyphenol Flavonoid Dietary intake Food source NDNS
The authors wish to thank Dr. Fabio Castello for his kind support in the literature searches to estimate the (poly)phenol content of some foods.
NZ conducted research, analyzed and interpreted data, performed statistical analysis, and wrote the paper; AR conducted research, assisted in data analysis and interpretation, and contributed to writing the manuscript; DDR designed research, contributed to manuscript revision and had primary responsibility for final content; BA and SN conducted research and provided critical review of the manuscript; PP, FS, and FB provided critical review of the manuscript; SR designed research, provided critical review of the manuscript, and had primary responsibility for final content; and PM designed research, interpreted the results, contributed to manuscript revision, and had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (NDNS RP) is jointly funded by Public Health England and the UK Food Standards Agency. NZ, BA, SN, PP and SR were supported by the UK Medical Research Council (program U1059600384).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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