Age-related bone loss is a consequence of endocrine and immune changes that disrupt bone remodeling. Functional foods (e.g., tart cherries) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activity can potentially counter this age-related phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine if Montmorency tart cherry protects against early age-related bone loss and the culpable alterations in bone metabolism.
Female, 5-month-old, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to baseline or treatment groups: AIN-93M diet supplemented with 0, 1, 5, or 10% tart cherry for 90 days. Bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture were assessed. Treatment effects on bone metabolism and regulators of bone formation, resorption and mineralization were determined.
Mice consuming the 5% and 10% doses had higher vertebral and tibial BMD (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The age-related decrease in trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) of the distal femur was prevented with these doses. Vertebral trabecular BV/TV and cortical bone thickness of the femur mid-diaphysis were greater (p < 0.05) in the groups receiving the 5% and 10% cherry than the control diet. Notably, these improvements were significantly greater than the baseline controls, consistent with an anabolic response. Although no differences in systemic biomarkers of bone formation or resorption were detected at 90 days, local increases in Phex and decreases in Ppar-γ suggest a bone environment that supports increased mineralization.
These findings demonstrate that cherry supplementation (5% and 10%) improves BMD and some indices of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture; these effects are likely attributed to increased bone mineralization.
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The authors would like to express their appreciation to VanDrunen Farms (Momence, IL, USA) for supplying the dried tart cherry powder and to Miss Sandra Peterson for her technical assistance with the animal study.
This research was supported by Cherry Research Committee of the Cherry Marketing Institute.
Conflict of interest
The authors, B. J. Smith, E.K. Crockett, P. Chongwatpol, J. L. Graef, E. Rendina-Ruedy, S. L. Clarke and E. A. Lucas, have no conflicts of interest.
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Smith, B.J., Crockett, E.K., Chongwatpol, P. et al. Montmorency tart cherry protects against age-related bone loss in female C57BL/6 mice and demonstrates some anabolic effects. Eur J Nutr 58, 3035–3046 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1848-1