Restorative potentiality of S-allylcysteine against diabetic nephropathy through attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats
In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic potentiality of S-allylcysteine (SAC) in streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NAD)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in experimental rats.
SAC was orally administered for 45 days to rats with STZ–NAD-induced DN; a metformin-treated group was included for comparison. Effect of SAC on body weight, organ weight, blood glucose, levels of insulin, glycated haemoglobin, and renal biochemical markers was determined. Body composition by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and dual-X ray absorptiometry (DXA), kidney antioxidant analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; histopathological and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the kidneys were performed in both control and experimental rats.
SAC treatment showed significantly decreased levels of blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, AST, ALT, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and expressions of NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α compared with DN control rats. Furthermore, SAC administration to DN rats significantly improved body composition and antioxidant defense mechanism which was confirmed by the upregulation of mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant genes.
Thus, SAC showed adequate therapeutic effect against DN by downregulation of inflammatory factors and attenuation of oxidative stress. Histological and SEM observations also indicated that SAC treatment notably reverses renal damage and protects the kidneys from hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative damage.
KeywordsNephropathy Oxidative stress Natural products Metabolic disorders Anti-diabetic
The authors thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST-SERB), Government of India (Ref no. DST/SERB/SR/SO/HS/0227/2012) and Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE), Department of Science and Technology (DST). Government of India (Grant no. DST/INSPIRE/04/2016/000893) for providing the financial assistance, and also thank for the management of K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Tiruchengode, for providing facilities.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
The protocol of this study was approved by the Institutional animal ethical committee of the National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (Approval no. P7F/II-IAEC/NIN/2015/GS/WNIN Rats/42M) and experiments were carried out according to the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Government of India.
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