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A cross-sectional study of fatty acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in human milk from lactating women following vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore diets

  • Maryanne T. PerrinEmail author
  • Roman Pawlak
  • Lisa L. Dean
  • Amber Christis
  • Linda Friend
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Essential fatty acids are critical for brain growth and neurodevelopment in infancy. Maternal diet and supplement use have a significant impact on the fat composition of human milk. The objective of this study is to assess supplement utilization patterns and fatty acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in the breast milk of women following vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore diet patterns.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional, observational study of 74 lactating women in the United States following a vegan (n = 26), vegetarian (n = 22), or omnivore (n = 26) diet pattern. A single breast milk sample was collected from each participant and assessed for fatty acids and BDNF.

Results

Median unsaturated fatty acids in the breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivores, as a percentage of total fatty acids, was 66.0, 57.8, and 56.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Total omega-3 percentages were 2.29% for vegans, 1.55% for vegetarians, and 1.46% for omnivores (p < 0.001). Docosahexaenoic acid percentages were not different by diet pattern, but over 80% of participants had milk concentrations below 0.30% of total fatty acids. Reports of omega-3 supplements use (10/74) and weekly seafood consumption (3/74) were limited. BDNF was not detectable in any samples.

Conclusions

Breast milk from vegans had significantly higher unsaturated fat and total omega-3 fats, and lower saturated fats, trans fats, and omega-6 to omega-3 ratios than their vegetarian and omnivore counterparts. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in breast milk were low regardless of maternal diet pattern, and were reflective of low seafood intake and supplement use.

Keywords

Human milk Breast milk Brain derived neurotrophic factor Docosahexaenoic acid Vegetarian Vegan 

Abbreviations

ALA

Alpha-linolenic acid

BDNF

Brain derived neurotrophic factor

BSQ

Basic screening questionnaire

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

LA

Linoleic acid (LA)

LCPUFA

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research received funding from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vegetarian Nutrition Dietary Practice Group.

Author contributions

MTP and RP designed the study. MTP, RP, LLD, AC and LF conducted research. MTP analyzed data and wrote paper. MTP has primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of North Carolina GreensboroGreensboroUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition ScienceEast Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA
  3. 3.Market Quality and Handling Research UnitUSDA/Agricultural Research ServiceRaleighUSA

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