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Large artery stiffness is associated with salt intake in young healthy black but not white adults: the African-PREDICT study

A Correction to this article was published on 04 August 2018

This article has been updated

Abstract

Purpose

There is global consensus on the benefits of reducing excessive salt intake. Indeed, lower salt intake associates with reduced arterial stiffness, a well-established predictor of cardiovascular risk, in older populations. Whether high habitual salt intake in healthy normotensive youth may already contribute to increased arterial stiffness is unknown. We, therefore, determined whether estimated salt intake is associated with large artery stiffness in young healthy black and white adults.

Methods

We included 693 black and white adults (51% black; 42% men), aged 20–30 years. Participants were normotensive based on clinic blood pressure, and no previous diagnosed chronic illnesses. We measured carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and determined estimated salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion.

Results

We found estimated salt consumption of > 5 g/day in 47% of our population, whereas 21% consumed > 10 g/day. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses a positive association existed between estimated salt intake and cfPWV in the total group (Adj. R2 = 0.32; std. β = 0.10; p = 0.007), and black adults (Adj. R2 = 0.37; std. β = 0.12; p = 0.029). This was independent of age, sex, mean arterial pressure, and other covariates. No association was evident in white individuals (p = 0.19).

Conclusion

Excessive salt intake is positively associated with large artery stiffness—independent of blood pressure—in young adults, especially in black individuals. Our results suggest a potential contributory role of salt consumption towards early vascular aging.

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Fig. 1

Change history

  • 04 August 2018

    In the Original publication of the article Fig. 1 was published incorrectly. The correct figure is given below. The original article has been corrected.

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Acknowledgements

The authors of this study are grateful towards all individuals participating voluntarily in the study. The dedication of the support and research staff as well as students at the Hypertension Research and Training Clinic at the North-West University is also duly acknowledged.

Funding

The research funded in this manuscript is part of an ongoing research project financially supported by the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) with funds from National Treasury under its Economic Competitiveness and Support Package; the South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa; the Strategic Health Innovation Partnerships (SHIP) Unit of the SAMRC with funds received from the South African National Department of Health; GlaxoSmithKline R&D, the UK Medical Research Council and with funds from the UK Government’s Newton Fund; as well as corporate social investment grants from Pfizer (SA), Boehringer Ingelheim (SA), Novartis (SA), the Medi Clinic Hospital Group (SA) and in kind contributions of Roche Diagnostics (SA). Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors, and therefore, the NRF does not accept any liability in regard.

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Correspondence to Aletta E. Schutte.

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All organizational procedures were then thoroughly explained, and participants who voluntarily proceeded with the study gave written informed consent. All procedures abided by the declaration of Helsinki and institutional guidelines.

Additional information

The ​original ​version ​of ​this ​article ​was ​revised: In the Original publication of the article Fig. 1 was published incorrectly. This has been corrected.

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Strauss, M., Smith, W., Kruger, R. et al. Large artery stiffness is associated with salt intake in young healthy black but not white adults: the African-PREDICT study. Eur J Nutr 57, 2649–2656 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1791-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1791-1

Keywords

  • Arterial stiffness
  • Black
  • Estimated salt intake
  • Healthy
  • Young