The effect of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in adult male mice programmed by maternal obesity
- 151 Downloads
Maternal obesity can program the offspring, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity in adult life. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a Brazilian plant that has weight-reducing effects. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Guarana on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice programmed by maternal obesity.
Swiss female mice were divided into two groups: control and high fat (HF), who received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), respectively, for 8 weeks prior to mating, gestation, and lactation. After post-natal day (PN) 21, the offspring of the HF group were subdivided into three groups: HF without treatment; HF early treatment, offspring treated with Guarana (1 g/kg bodyweight) in PN25–PN30; HF late treatment, offspring treated with Guarana (1 g/kg bodyweight) in PN65–PN75. Basal energy expenditure, the lipid profile and fasting glucose levels were determined. Body composition was evaluated by dissecting adipose tissue depots. Gene expression was analyzed using real-time PCR.
During mating, the weight of HF females increased; after lactation, their adipose tissue depots and fasting glycemic levels also increased. The offspring of the HF group showed an increased body weight at PN21. At PN80, in the mice treated with Guarana (with both treatments), VO2 and energy expenditure increased, adipose tissue depots decreased, and the expression of leptin, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 decreased compared with that in the HF group.
Guarana treatment at both stages of life reversed some of the alterations developed by the offspring of HF animals in adult life.
KeywordsMaternal obesity Metabolic programming Guarana (Paullinia cupana) Obesity Inflammation
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- 1.World Health Organization (2014) Overweight and obesity. http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight/en/. Accessed 18 Dec 2017
- 2.CDC (2015) Vital signs: leading causes of death, prevalence of diseases and risk factors, and use of health services among hispanics in the United States—2009–2013. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6417a5.htm. Accessed 18 Dec 2017
- 6.Ogden CL et al (2012) Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009–2010. NCHS Data Brief (82):1–8. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.pdf
- 9.Franco JG, Fernandes TP, Rocha CP, Calviño C, Pazos-Moura CC, Lisboa PC, Moura EG, Trevenzoli IH (2012) Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning. J Physiol 590:5503–5518. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2012.240655 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Krewer C, Ribeiro C, Ribeiro EE, Moresco EA, da Rocha RN, Montagner MI, Machado GF, Viegas MM, Brito K, da Cruz EIB (2011) Habitual intake of Guarana and metabolic morbidities: an epidemiological study of an elderly Amazonian population. Phytother Res 25(9):1367–1374. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3437 Google Scholar
- 18.Cordero P, Li J, Nguyen V, Pombo J, Maicas N, Novelli M, Taylor PD, Samuelsson AM, Vinciguerra M, Oben JA (2017) Developmental programming of obesity and liver metabolism by maternal perinatal nutrition involves the melanocortin system. Nutrients 9(9):E1041. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Ruebel ML, Cotter M, Sims CR, Moutos DM, Badger TM, Cleves MA, Shankar K, Andres A (2017) Obesity modulates inflammation and lipid metabolism oocyte gene expression: a single-cell transcriptome perspective. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102(6):2029–2038. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-3524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar