Saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and cancer risk: results from the French prospective cohort NutriNet-Santé
- 241 Downloads
Lipid intakes such as saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids have been widely studied regarding cardiovascular health, but their relevance to cancer is unclear. Inconsistent epidemiological results may be explained by varied mechanisms involving PUFAs and redox balance, inflammatory status and cell signalling, along with interactions with other dietary components such as antioxidants, dietary fibre and more generally fruits and vegetable intakes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the associations between lipid intakes and cancer risk, and their potential modulation by vitamin C, vitamin E, dietary fibre and fruit and vegetable intakes.
This prospective study included 44,039 participants aged ≥ 45 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2017). Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h-dietary records. Multivariable Cox models were performed to characterize associations.
SFA intake was associated with increased overall [n = 1722 cases, HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.44 (1.10–1.87), p-trend = 0.008] and breast [n = 545 cases, HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.98 (1.24–3.17), p-trend = 0.01] cancer risks. n-6 PUFA [HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.56 (0.32–0.97), p-trend = 0.01] and MUFA (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.41 [0.18-0.0.95), p-trend = 0.009] intakes were associated with a decreased risk of digestive cancers (n = 190 cases). Associations between n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes and digestive cancer risk were modulated by dietary fibre, vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intakes.
These findings suggested that SFA intake could increase overall and breast cancer risks while some unsaturated fatty acids could decrease digestive cancer risk. However, in line with mechanistic hypotheses, our results suggest that intakes of fruits and vegetables and their constituents (antioxidants, fibre) may interact with PUFAs to modulate these associations.
KeywordsPUFAs Lipids Saturated fatty acids Cancer risk Prospective cohort Antioxidants
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids
The authors thank all the volunteers of the NutriNet-Santé cohort. We also thank Frédéric Coffinieres, Thi Hong Van Duong, Younes Esseddik (IT manager), Paul Flanzy, Régis Gatibelza, Jagatjit Mohinder and Maithyly Sivapalan (computer scientists); and Julien Allegre, Nathalie Arnault, Laurent Bourhis, Véronique Gourlet, PhD and Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, PhD (manager) (data-manager/biostatisticians) for their technical contribution to the NutriNet-Santé study and Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, PhD (operational coordination).
LS and MT: designed the research; SH, PG, EKG, MT: conducted the research; LS: performed statistical analysis; MT: supervised statistical analysis; LS and MT: wrote the paper; LS, BS, FG, FP, EKG, TF, CL, ME, PLM, PF, SH, PG, MD, and MT: contributed to the data interpretation and revised each draft for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. MT had primary responsibility for the final content. None of the authors reported a conflict of interest related to the study. The funders had no role in the design, implementation, analysis, or interpretation of the data. This research was performed in the framework of the French network for Nutrition And Cancer Research (NACRe network).
The NutriNet-Santé study was supported by the following public institutions: Ministère de la Santé, Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS), Institut National de la Prévention et de l’Education pour la Santé (INPES), Région Ile-de-France (CORDDIM), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) and Université Paris 13. Mélanie Deschasaux and Philippine Fassier were funded by a PhD Grant from the Cancéropôle Ile de France/Région Ile de France (public funding). Bernard Srour was funded by the French National Cancer Institute (grant number INCa_8085).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.WHO, IARC (2012) All Cancers: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- 3.World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. AICR, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- 4.WCRF/AICR (2017) Continuous Update Project findings and reportsGoogle Scholar
- 12.Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan D et al (2017) Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR continuous update project. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx171 Google Scholar
- 20.Pouchieu C, Chajès V, Laporte F et al (2014) Prospective associations between plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and overall and breast cancer risk—modulation by antioxidants: a nested case-control study. PLoS One 9:e90442. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Männistö S, Pietinen P, Virtanen MJ et al (2003) Fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in a nested case–control study in male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Prev Biomark 12:1422–1428Google Scholar
- 22.Pierre FHF, Martin OCB, Santarelli RL et al (2013) Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1255–1262. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.061069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.de Sousa Moraes LF, Sun X, Peluzio M, do CG, Zhu M-J (2017) Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins and colorectal cancer: what is behind the scenes?. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1357533
- 28.Hercberg S, Castetbon K, Czernichow S et al (2010) The Nutrinet-Santé Study: a web-based prospective study on the relationship between nutrition and health and determinants of dietary patterns and nutritional status. BMC Public Health 10:242. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.The IPAQ Group (2005) Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. http://www.ipaq.ki.se
- 35.Lassale C, Castetbon K, Laporte F et al (2016) Correlations between fruit, vegetables, fish, vitamins, and fatty acids estimated by web-based nonconsecutive dietary records and respective biomarkers of nutritional status. J Acad Nutr Diet 116:427–438.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Le Moullec N, Deheeger M, Preziosi P et al (1996) Validation du manuel photo utilisé pour l’enquête alimentaire de l’étude SU.VI.MAX (Validation of the food portion size booklet used in the SU.VI.MAX study). Cah Nutr Diététique 31:158–164Google Scholar
- 37.Arnault N, Caillot L, Castetbon K et al (2013) Table De composition des aliments, étude NutriNet-Santé. [Food composition table, NutriNet-Santé study]. Les éditions INSERM/Economica, Paris (in French) Google Scholar
- 40.INCa (2016) Les cancers en France. [Cancers in France]. http://www.e-cancer.fr/ressources/cancers_en_france/ (in French)
- 53.Andreeva VA, Salanave B, Castetbon K et al (2015) Comparison of the sociodemographic characteristics of the large NutriNet-Santé e-cohort with French census data: the issue of volunteer bias revisited. J Epidemiol Community Health 69:893–898. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2014-205263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 54.ANSES, Comité d’Experts Spécialisé Nutrition Humaine, Groupe de travail ANC acides gras (2011) Actualisation des apports nutritionnels conseillés pour les acides gras, rapport d’expertise collective. [Update of recommended dietary fatty acid intakes, collective expert report]. Anses editions (in French) Google Scholar