Physical activity and Mediterranean diet based on olive tree phenolic compounds from two different geographical areas have protective effects on early osteoarthritis, muscle atrophy and hepatic steatosis
Osteoarthitis (OA) leads to progressive loss of articular cartilage, pain and joint disability. An acute injury constitutes an important risk factor for early OA, determining an inflammatory process responsible of cartilage degeneration and muscle atrophy, due to the joint pain and immobility. The study aims to assess the effects of conjugation of physical activity and diet enriched by olive tree compounds [extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olive leaf extract (OLE)], on the musculoskeletal system in OA rat model.
OA was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and confirmed by Mankin and OARSI scores. Rats were subjected to physical activity on treadmill 5 days a week for 10 min daily and fed with experimental diets (standard diet enriched with Sicilian EVOO, Tunisian EVOO and Tunisian EVOO-OLE) for 12 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate IL-6 and lubricin expression in cartilage tissue and ELISA was used to quantify these proteins in serum at different time points. Histology and histomorphometry analysis were done to valuate liver steatosis, muscle atrophy and cartilage pathological changes.
Compared to the OA group, the experimental groups showed general increased lubricin and decreased IL-6 expression, significant muscle hypertrophy and no signs of liver steatosis, suggesting the beneficial effects of physical activity coupled with EVOO-enriched diets on rat articular cartilage. Interestingly, the best result was shown for Sicilian EVOO-enriched diet.
In conclusion, the conjugation of physical activity and EVOO-enriched diet determines a significant articular cartilage recovery process in early OA.
KeywordsOsteoarthritis Muscle atrophy Physical activity Olive oil Olive leaf extract Lubricin Inflammation
This study was supported by the University Research Project Grant (Triennial Research Plan 2016–2018), Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), University of Catania, Italy. The authors would like to thank “Oleificio Guccione di Divita Vito e G. SAS” for providing us the extra virgin Sicilian olive oil and Prof. Iain Halliday for commenting and making corrections to the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 1.Musumeci G, Loreto C, Imbesi R, Trovato FM, Di Giunta A, Lombardo C et al (2014) Advantages of exercise in rehabilitation, treatment and prevention of altered morphological features in knee osteoarthritis. A narrative review. Histol Histopathol 29:707–719Google Scholar
- 3.Musumeci G, Szychlinska MA, Mobasheri A (2015) Age-related degeneration of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis: molecular markers of senescent chondrocytes. Histol Histopathol 30:1–12Google Scholar
- 8.Dinu M, Pagliai G, Casini A, Sofi F (2017) Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 72:30–43Google Scholar
- 16.Pichler K, Loreto C, Leonardi R, Reuber T, Weinberg AM, Musumeci G (2013) RANKL is downregulated in bone cells by physical activity (treadmill and vibration stimulation training) in rat with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Histol Histopathol 28:1185–1196Google Scholar
- 20.Szychlinska MA, Trovato FM, Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera L, Puzzo L, Leonardi R et al (2016) Co-expression and co-localization of cartilage glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in osteoarthritic cartilage: morphological, immunohistochemical and gene expression profiles. Int J Mol Sci 17:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Chang NJ, Lee KW, Chu CJ, Shie MY, Chou PH, Lin CC et al (2017) A preclinical assessment of early continuous passive motion and treadmill therapeutic exercises for generating chondroprotective effects after anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Am J Sports Med 45:2284–2293Google Scholar
- 39.Yarla NS, Polito A, Peluso I (2018) Effects of Olive Oil on TNF-α and IL-6 in Humans: Implication in Obesity and Frailty. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 18:63–74Google Scholar
- 40.Medina-Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra-Rimbau A, Ros E, Martínez-González MA, Fitó M et al (2017) PREDIMED. Study Investigators. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol 83:114–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Gong D, Geng C, Jiang L, Wang L, Yoshimura H, Zhong L (2012) Mechanisms of olive leaf extract-ameliorated rat arthritis caused by kaolin and carrageenan. Phytother Res Mar 26:397–402Google Scholar
- 51.Liu RH (2003) Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78:517S-20SGoogle Scholar