Influence of rice, pea and oat proteins in attenuating glycemic response of sugar-sweetened beverages
- 467 Downloads
Liquids have higher ingestion and gastric-emptying rates, resulting in rapid glycemic response. They are also less satiating than solid foods. This study examined if the addition of plant proteins alter postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glycogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and appetitive responses to a sugar-sweetened beverage.
This was a randomized, crossover acute feeding study consisting of four treatments: chocolate beverage alone (50 g carbohydrate), or added with 24 g oat, pea or rice proteins. Twenty Chinese males (mean ± SD age 26 ± 5 years; body mass index 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m2) ingested the test drink after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected before test beverage and at fixed intervals for 180 min. Blood biochemical data and appetite ratings were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA.
Significant interaction effects were found in postprandial glucose excursions (time × protein effects, p = 0.003). Glucose iAUC was lower in pea and rice proteins, although not significantly (p > 0.385). Insulin iAUC was significantly higher in the oat (p = 0.035) and pea (p = 0.036) protein beverages. GIP and GLP-1 release in a sub-sample (n = 10) followed a comparable order as insulin release (p = 0.397 and 0.454, respectively). Significant interaction effects were found in fullness ratings (p = 0.024), and a trend of greater suppression of hunger and desire-to-eat was also documented (p = 0.088 and 0.080, respectively).
Plant proteins altered the glycemic and appetitive responses of Asian males to a sugar-sweetened beverage. Food-based interventions are useful in promoting glycemic control. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02933424.
KeywordsDietary proteins Blood glucose Insulin Incretin Appetite
We would like to thank our clinical trial nurse, Ms. Susanna Lim, for her phlebotomy assistance in this study. This study was partially funded by Wilmar International Limited. We would like to thank Wilmar for the rice protein, Tate & Lyle for the oat protein, and Roquette Freres for the pea protein concentrate used in this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 3.Cavalot F, Petrelli A, Traversa M, Bonomo K, Fiora E, Conti M, Anfossi G, Costa G, Trovati M (2006) Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(3):813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.World Health Organization (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Tech Rep Series, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 37.Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen A, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP, Brummer R-JM, Deutz NE, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Effects of high and normal soyprotein breakfasts on satiety and subsequent energy intake, including amino acid and ‘satiety’hormone responses. Eur J Nutr 48(2):92–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar