European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 8, pp 2795–2803 | Cite as

Influence of rice, pea and oat proteins in attenuating glycemic response of sugar-sweetened beverages

  • Sze-Yen Tan
  • Phei Ching Siow
  • Elaine Peh
  • Christiani Jeyakumar HenryEmail author
Original Contribution



Liquids have higher ingestion and gastric-emptying rates, resulting in rapid glycemic response. They are also less satiating than solid foods. This study examined if the addition of plant proteins alter postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glycogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and appetitive responses to a sugar-sweetened beverage.


This was a randomized, crossover acute feeding study consisting of four treatments: chocolate beverage alone (50 g carbohydrate), or added with 24 g oat, pea or rice proteins. Twenty Chinese males (mean ± SD age 26 ± 5 years; body mass index 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m2) ingested the test drink after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected before test beverage and at fixed intervals for 180 min. Blood biochemical data and appetite ratings were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA.


Significant interaction effects were found in postprandial glucose excursions (time × protein effects, p = 0.003). Glucose iAUC was lower in pea and rice proteins, although not significantly (p > 0.385). Insulin iAUC was significantly higher in the oat (p = 0.035) and pea (p = 0.036) protein beverages. GIP and GLP-1 release in a sub-sample (n = 10) followed a comparable order as insulin release (p = 0.397 and 0.454, respectively). Significant interaction effects were found in fullness ratings (p = 0.024), and a trend of greater suppression of hunger and desire-to-eat was also documented (p = 0.088 and 0.080, respectively).


Plant proteins altered the glycemic and appetitive responses of Asian males to a sugar-sweetened beverage. Food-based interventions are useful in promoting glycemic control. This trial was registered with as NCT02933424.


Dietary proteins Blood glucose Insulin Incretin Appetite 



We would like to thank our clinical trial nurse, Ms. Susanna Lim, for her phlebotomy assistance in this study. This study was partially funded by Wilmar International Limited. We would like to thank Wilmar for the rice protein, Tate & Lyle for the oat protein, and Roquette Freres for the pea protein concentrate used in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    American Diabetes Association (2017) 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 40(Supplement 1):S11–S24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Temelkova-Kurktschiev TS, Koehler C, Henkel E, Leonhardt W, Fuecker K, Hanefeld M (2000) Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care 23(12):1830–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavalot F, Petrelli A, Traversa M, Bonomo K, Fiora E, Conti M, Anfossi G, Costa G, Trovati M (2006) Postprandial blood glucose is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in women: lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(3):813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dickinson S, Colagiuri S, Faramus E, Petocz P, Brand-Miller J (2002) Postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity differ among lean young adults of different ethnicities. J Nutr 132(9):2574–2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ma RC, Chan JC (2013) Type 2 diabetes in East Asians: similarities and differences with populations in Europe and the United States. Ann NY Acad Sci 1281(1):64–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Canary J (1988) Effect of starch structure on glucose and insulin responses in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 47(3):428–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brennan CS (2005) Dietary fibre, glycaemic response, and diabetes. Mol Nutr Food Res 49(6):560–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tan S-Y, Peh EW-Y, Marangoni AG, Henry CJ (2017) Effects of liquid oil vs. oleogel co-ingested with a carbohydrate-rich meal on human blood triglycerides, glucose, insulin and appetite. Food Funct 8:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    American Diabetes Association (2017) 4. Lifestyle management. Diabetes Care 40(Supplement 1):S33–S43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karhunen L, Juvonen K, Huotari A, Purhonen A, Herzig K (2008) Effect of protein, fat, carbohydrate and fibre on gastrointestinal peptide release in humans. Regul Pept 149(1):70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sun L, Wei Jie Tan K, Jeyakumar Henry C (2015) Co-ingestion of essence of chicken to moderate glycaemic response of bread. Int J Food Sci Nutr 66(8):931–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    van Loon LJ, Saris WH, Verhagen H, Wagenmakers AJ (2000) Plasma insulin responses after ingestion of different amino acid or protein mixtures with carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr 72(1):96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu FB, Malik VS (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence. Physiol Behav 100(1):47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Camilleri M, Malagelada JR, Brown ML, Becker G, Zinsmeister AR (1985) Relation between antral motility and gastric emptying of solids and liquids in humans. Am J Physiol 249(5):G580–G585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cassady BA, Considine RV, Mattes RD (2012) Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect? Am J Clin Nutr 95(3):587–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dhillon J, Running CA, Tucker RM, Mattes RD (2016) Effects of food form on appetite and energy balance. Food Qual Prefer 48:368–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duffey KJ, Popkin BM (2007) Shifts in patterns and consumption of beverages between 1965 and 2002. Obesity 15(11):2739–2747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barquera S, Hernandez-Barrera L, Tolentino ML, Espinosa J, Ng SW, Rivera JA, Popkin BM (2008) Energy intake from beverages is increasing among Mexican adolescents and adults. J Nutr 138(12):2454–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bell A, Kremer P, Magarey AM, Swinburn B (2005) Contribution of ‘noncore’foods and beverages to the energy intake and weight status of Australian children. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(5):639–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma J, Stevens JE, Cukier K, Maddox AF, Wishart JM, Jones KL, Clifton PM, Horowitz M, Rayner CK (2009) Effects of a protein preload on gastric emptying, glycemia, and gut hormones after a carbohydrate meal in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32(9):1600–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nuttall FQ, Mooradian AD, Gannon MC, Billington C, Krezowski P (1984) Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose and insulin response to a standardized oral glucose load. Diabetes Care 7(5):465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Calbet JA, Holst JJ (2004) Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans. Eur J Nutr 43(3):127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dhillon J, Craig BA, Leidy HJ, Amankwaah AF, Anguah KO-B, Jacobs A, Jones BL, Jones JB, Keeler CL, Keller CE (2016) The effects of increased protein intake on fullness: a meta-analysis and its limitations. J Acad Nutr Diet 116(6):968–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen A, van Vught AJ, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP, Brummer RJ, Deutz NE, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Dose-dependent satiating effect of whey relative to casein or soy. Physiol Behav 96(4–5):675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nilsson M, Stenberg M, Frid AH, Holst JJ, Björck IM (2004) Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins: the role of plasma amino acids and incretins. Am J Clin Nutr 80(5):1246–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gilbert JA, Bendsen NT, Tremblay A, Astrup A (2011) Effect of protein from different sources on body composition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21:B16–B31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Newgard CB, An J, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Stevens RD, Lien LF, Haqq AM, Shah SH, Arlotto M, Slentz CA (2009) A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean humans and contributes to insulin resistance. Cell Metab 9(4):311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hall W, Millward D, Long S, Morgan L (2003) Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 89(02):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Floyd JC Jr, Fajans SS, Conn JW, Knopf RF, Rull J (1966) Stimulation of insulin secretion by amino acids. J Clin Invest 45(9):1487–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nestle M (1999) Animal v. plant foods in human diets and health: is the historical record unequivocal? Proc Nutr Soc 58(02):211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Health Organization (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. WHO Tech Rep Series, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quek R, Bi X, Henry CJ (2016) Impact of protein-rich meals on glycaemic response of rice. Br J Nutr 115(07):1194–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shewry PR, Halford NG (2002) Cereal seed storage proteins: structures, properties and role in grain utilization. J Exp Bot 53(370):947–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spiller GA, Jensen CD, Pattison T, Chuck CS, Whittam JH, Scala J (1987) Effect of protein dose on serum glucose and insulin response to sugars. Am J Clin Nutr 46(3):474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, Astrup A (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes 24(1):38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wolever TM (2006) Determining the GI of foods—methodological considerations. In: Wolever TM (ed) The glycaemic index: a physiological classification of dietary carbohydrate. CABI, Wallingford, pp 12–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen A, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP, Brummer R-JM, Deutz NE, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Effects of high and normal soyprotein breakfasts on satiety and subsequent energy intake, including amino acid and ‘satiety’hormone responses. Eur J Nutr 48(2):92–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Calbet JA, MacLean DA (2002) Plasma glucagon and insulin responses depend on the rate of appearance of amino acids after ingestion of different protein solutions in humans. J Nutr 132(8):2174–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Claessens M, Calame W, Siemensma AD, Saris WH, van Baak MA (2007) The thermogenic and metabolic effects of protein hydrolysate with or without a carbohydrate load in healthy male subjects. Metabolism 56(8):1051–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ishikawa Y, Hira T, Inoue D, Harada Y, Hashimoto H, Fujii M, Kadowaki M, Hara H (2015) Rice protein hydrolysates stimulate GLP-1 secretion, reduce GLP-1 degradation, and lower the glycemic response in rats. Food Funct 6(8):2525–2534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fajans S, Floyd Jr J, Knopf R, Conn J (2013) Effect of amino acids and proteins on insulin secretion in man. In: Schering symposium on endocrinology, Berlin, May 26 to 27, 1967: advances in the biosciences, Elsevier, p 231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gilani GS, Cockell KA, Sepehr E (2005) Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods. J AOAC Int 88(3):967–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Holt GM, Owen LJ, Till S, Cheng Y, Grant VA, Harden CJ, Corfe BM (2016) Systematic literature review shows that appetite rating does not predict energy intake. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr in press. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1246414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Borzoei S, Neovius M, Barkeling B, Teixeira-Pinto A, Rössner S (2006) A comparison of effects of fish and beef protein on satiety in normal weight men. Eur J Clin Nutr 60(7):897–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pal S, Ellis V (2010) The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men. Br J Nutr 104(08):1241–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anderson GH, Tecimer SN, Shah D, Zafar TA (2004) Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men. J Nutr 134(11):3011–3015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Williamson DA, Geiselman PJ, Lovejoy J, Greenway F, Volaufova J, Martin CK, Arnett C, Ortego L (2006) Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety. Appetite 46(1):41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM (2006) Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91(8):2913–2919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tan S-Y, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC (2010) Energy expenditure does not differ, but protein oxidation rates appear lower in meals containing predominantly meat versus soy sources of protein. Obes Facts 3:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Diepvens K, Häberer D, Westerterp-Plantenga M (2008) Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans. Int J Obes 32(3):510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chungchunlam SM, Henare SJ, Ganesh S, Moughan PJ (2017) Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women. Physiol Behav 175(1):113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nathan DM, Kuenen J, Borg R, Zheng H, Schoenfeld D, Heine RJ (2008) Translating the A1C assay into estimated average glucose values. Diabetes Care 31(8):1473–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC)Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), National University Health SystemSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryYong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Centre for Translational MedicineYong Loo Lin School of MedicineSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations